History of the Cinema

 

The 1 March of 1895, his/her brothers Lumières (August and Louis) introduced Arroseur arrosè during their first projection; brief scenes of a boy that he took game of a gardener stamping on the reed with which you/he/she was sprinkling. Simple jokes of this type represented the cinema of the origins. The greatest part of the films of the origins were composed from a solo shot, the taking car was always estate in the same position and the action it developed him in the time of an only resumption. In many cases, the directors made of a single subject different resumptions, these they came then lines as a series of separate film. The managers of the rooms could choose then whether to buy the whole series or to project a solo of it. In 1899, the producers started to realize film with different shots. Beginning from 1894, his/her Brothers' catalog Lumière understood hundred images of Spain, Egypt, Italy, Japan. To Eugène Promio, the invention of the movement of car is for instance, attributed, the camcorders were supported by fixed tripod that didn't allow the car to rotate or to effect pannings. In 1896, Promio introduced the movement in a resumption in Venice, putting the tripod on a gondola, it improved this technique positioning the car on ships and trains. His/her Brothers Lumierès, transformed the cinema an international phenomenon. The 4 May of 1897, their firm owed record a wisecrack of arrest; during a projection in the Cafe de the Charitè in Paris, a curtain caught fire because of the ether used for feeding the lamp of the projector. The fire that sprang of it, was one of the worse tragedies of the history of the cinema, 125 people they lost the life. His/her brothers Lumières, kept on producing film, but in the time you/they were excluded by the market by more innovative rivals.

In 1905, their production ceased, and in France other production houses appeared; among these also a small company started by George Mèliès, the Wizard of the Cinema, although he is remembered mainly for his fantastic films, for his painted backdrops, Mèlliès, realizes all kinds of movies in vogue in those times. Illusionist, he was also the owner of the Théatre Robert-Houdin, named after the most famous French magician. His early films included many views and short scenes shot outdoors in the style of the Lumière Brothers. In the first year of his activity, Mèliès realizes seventy-eight films, including the first in which he made use of tricks: - Escamotage d'une dame chez Robert Houdin or the disappearance of a lady at Robert Houdin, in which Mèlies interprets a magician who transforms a woman in skeleton. The trick was to stop shooting and replace the woman with a skeleton. He later made use of the machine stop and other special effects to create more complex and magical scenes of magic. All his tricks were made in the process of recovery, because, very few before the mid-twenties, the manipulations that could be done in the laboratory. In 1897 he built a small theater with glass walls that allowed him to draw and create scenographies on canvas backgrounds. In this study between 1898 and 1899 he made several types of films, such as a submarine visit to Maine and L'affaire Dreyfus, the story of a Jewish officer convicted of treason in 1894 on the basis of false evidence produced for anti-Semitic reasons. This film aroused much controversy, but it remains without a doubt one of the most complex works of the cinema of the origins, especially for the ten shots taken as if they were ten different films. In the following work, Cenerentola, 1899, Mèliès, begins to unite different shots and sell them with a single film. His films, in particular those of a fantastic genre, became very famous in France and abroad. Among his most famous works, we recall Le voyage dans la lune (Journey to the Moon, 1902)comic film of science fiction on a group of scientists on board of a spatial shuttle in orbit for the Moon, that you/they escape after having been done imprisoned from strange creatures. Many of his/her films introduced complicated effects of lock car:  from a cloud of smoke demons suddenly appeared, men that jumped were turned into demons during the flight. Mèliès was also teacher of a certain type of assemblage, as they shows recent studies; his/her effects of lock car you/they were also realized after the resumptions: cutting the film had the possibility to unite the movement of the object with the thing with which he was transforming, cuts of which the spectator didn't even realize. Its films continued to be successful, up to when not succeeding to sopperire anymore to the increasing question started to hear again some competition from the greatest societies. His/her last masterpiece, To the conquest of the Pole, (1912), it was resounding failure. In the same year, submerged of debts, it was forced to stop after having made five hundred movie. It died in the 1938. In 1896, Charles Pathè, the Pathè Frères founded, and it mainly assembled him on the production of film. In 1902 he/she built a theater of laying with the walls of glass and it started to sell his/her camcorder that became the most diffused in the world up to the end of the nine hundred. In 1904, Pathè also widened his/her activity to the foreign countries opening offices of sale to London, New York, Moscow, Berlin and San Pietroburgo. In few years the Pathè Freres became the greatest cinema society in the world. His/her rival in France was a smaller firm founded by the inventor Lèon Gaumont that, as Lumière, initially dealt him with photographic material. The society begins to produce film in the 1897. These mainly consisted in actuality it took back from Alice Guy Blanchè, the first woman director. The appointment of Gaumont of film in this period was limited, since its principal interest concerned the technical innovations in the photographic material. Beginning from 1897, the shows of lower part short films price they also spread in the fairs where they recalled the public of the working class. To the beginning the May departs some English films it founded him on very simple subjects or drawn by the actuality. The first English films became famous for their shows special effects. Cecil Hepworth, produced for example film beginning from 1899, assembling himself/herself/itself on the themes of actuality, but soon it also started to make movie full of makeups and effects, and it ended up becoming the most important producer in the period between 1905 and the 1914. the capiscuolas were George Albert Smith and James Williamson, both photographers, that passed to the cinema in the 1897. Both built small studies opened by a side to make to enter the light and they experimented different ways to use the special effects and the assemblage that the directors of other countries subsequently influenced. During 1896 and 1897, a lot of small societies put in commerce their projectors, all projected ones for the film 35 mm. In the years between 1895 and 1897 the cinema represented a big novelty. To the beginning of 1898 the novelty was consumed, the flow in the cinemas decreased and many managers of salt withdrew him from the market. Italy arrives some later on the scene of the cinema production, that quickly developed him beginning from 1905. In the turn of few years the Italian cinema industry started to resemble to that French. Some Italian films were imitations if not straight remake of French film. In 1910, Italy was only probably second to France for number of film exported to the foreign countries. The Italian producers were among the first ones to realize film more of a roll, therefore longer film of fifteen minutes. In the 1910 Giovanni Pastrone, one of the greatest directors of the epoch, realize her The fall of Sow, in three rolls. Beginning from 1909 the Italian producers restarted however to imitate French realizing quite a lot comic series. Denmark developed an important role within the international cinema thanks to the entrepreneur Ole Olsen. In 1906 founds a house of production, the Nordisk, beginning soon to open offices of distribution to the foreign countries, reaching the success in 1907 with Lovejagten (it Chases to the lion) a film on the safari. The films of the Nordisk shortly time they became famous all over the world for the excellent recitation and the productive merits. You specialized in the police one, in the play and in melodramas somehow , inclusive histories of prostitution. The Nordisk had a set that a circus reproduced and that he/she permanently remained installed: some among the principal films of the company were in fact the melodramas on the life of the circus as De Fire Djaevle (The four devils, of Robert Dinesen and Alfred Lind 1911). The industry Danish cinematography was flourishing up to the burst of the first world war that closed many of its markets of export.

 

The Nickelodeons

 

In 1905 the films were projected mainly in halls of variety, theaters and in other places of meeting. The principal tendency of the American cinema industry in the years 1905-1907 was the great development of the number of the rooms. They were generally small stores that contained less than two hundred places to sit; the entrance generally cost a nickel (from here the term Nickelodeon or a dime (ten cents) if the program had lasted since fifteen to the sixty minutes. The greatest part of the Nickelodeons had only a projector.

The Nickelodeons could program their films in continuation, from the late forenoon to midnight. More economic than the theaters of variety, they offered more regular prices of the itinerant shows. The expenses were generally lower, the spectators sat on benches or on wood chairs. 

 

Announcements on the newspapers rarely informed ahead of the programs of the shows, so the spectators you they regularly brought him or they happened by chance you. Out of the cinema the titles of the films were exposed and at times the assignment to attract the attention of the passers-by was submitted to a phonograph. There was almost always a sonorous accompaniment: it happened that it was the same manager of the room to explain how much it happened on the screen, but the accompaniment was more frequent from a piano or of a phonograph. The price of the ticket was of twenty-five cents or more, a tall too price for the salaries of the workers. The Nicklodeons allowed a public of mass, formed substantially from immigrant, to assist to the shows. All the Nickelodeons were situated in the district of the business or in the industrial zones of the city. The workers had so the possibility to go to the cinema near house, while the secretaries and the messengers could see a show during the time of break for the lunch or after the job. In the 1908 Nickelodeon the principal formality of projection had become, and the greatest part of the films came from the foreign countries. Pathé, Gaumont, Hepworth, Cines, Nordisk and other European societies dominated the program of weekly distribution.

 

 

 Birth of the Lungometraggio

 

The tendency toward longer plannings and the films of great artistic prestige asked for to increase the length of the films. In 1909 some American producers started to realize film more of a roll, but since the rigid system of the MPPC Motion Picture Patents Company with to head the Edison and the AM&B created in the December of 1908, that checked the whole other societies, allowed to distribute a solo roll a week, the shopkeepers you/they could project only a part of film to the time. Between the end of 1909 and the beginning of 1910, the Vitagraph for example, owed sell The Life of Moses (You life of Mosè) in five separate rolls. Once in possession of everybody and five the rolls, some managers decided to project them the one after the other, while the longest films kept on being projected in different parts during the week. In Europe, where the system of distribution was more flexible, the films composed from more rolls were frequent and when you/they had cared in the United States, you/they were projected in the rooms in their entirety, with the price of the increased ticket. As you/he/she is seen, The fall of Sow, turned in three rolls, it was successful in the 1911. in the 1912 Adolph Zukor it triumphally cared her reine Elisabeth (The Queen Elizabeth) and so also dames aux camèlias (The lady of the camellias). The success of the importations forced the American houses of production to realize long film to distribute in an only solution. In 1911, the Vitagraph made to go out Vanity Fair (The fair of the vanities), composed by three rolls, as an only film. Around halves the years Ten, the lungometraggio became the standard measure of the planning of the most prestigious rooms provoking the decline of the short films, preferred by the managers of nickelodeon. Assemblage and Narrative Continuity

 

When the assemblage

 

 

Unites a series of sequences, narrative clarity depends on the fact that the spectator understands the spatial relationship and storm between a sequence and the other. In 1908, Alfred Capus, scriptwriter of the society French Film Art, affirmed that to maintain the attention of the public lives, you/he/she was necessary to maintain a connection between a shot and that preceding. In this period, the directors, developed some techniques that, beginning from 1917, you/they would have formed the principle of narrative continuity of the assemblage. This system included three fundamental ways to unite the sequences: the alternate assemblage, the analytical assemblage and the adjoining assemblage. The Alternate Assemblage before 1906, in the narrative films it didn't move him before and back among actions that happened in different places; contrarily, in the greatest part of the cases, a continuous action formed the whole history. The popular kind of the pursuit furnishes the best example of it. If the actions were different, the film assembled him on each of them in its entirety and therefore it passed to the following one. One of the first important cases in which the action moves him before and behind among different places, with at least two sequences in every place, The 100 to 1 Shot, or To Run of Luck (A probability on one hundred or a run toward the fortune 1906. in the cinema of the origins the alternate assemblage was also used for other types of action besides the rescues. David Wark Griffith is more often the in partnership director with the technique of the alternate assemblage. One of the films in which it made a wide use and full of suspense of this technique was The Lonely Villa (The isolated villa 1909). In 1912 this technique was commonly by now used in the American films.  The Analytical Assemblage refers to that type of assemblage that divides an unique space in different shots. A simple way to do was him/it that to insert shots brought closer of what you/he/she was happening; in this way a long field showed the whole space and a narrower it gave great relief to the objects or to the expressions of the face. The Adjoining Assemblage in some scenes, the characters went out of the space framed for then reappearing in the following shot. These movements were typical of the kind of the pursuit: generally the characters raced through the framed space and they went out from there; in the following shot, an adjacent place was seen where it took back the movement of their run. Not all the films of this period show the characters to stir in coherent way through adjoining spaces. Toward the years ten, nevertheless, many directors understood that if he maintains constant the direction of the movement the public helps him to follow the trace of the relationships among different spaces. In the turn of few years, the directors learned to make to move the characters in the same direction. Toward halves the years Ten, the coherence of the movement of the characters on the screen became an implicit rule of the assemblage hollywoodiano. 

 

The Color

 

 

Although the greatest part of the copies of mute film that we today see both in black and white, a lot of times were color according to the fashion in vigor during their exit. The color accented the realistic aspect of the film. After the Pathé Film had introduced his/her system of coloration to brush or to buffer, other companies used similar techniques. The color could also furnish useful information to the narration and therefore to make the most comprehensible history for the spectator. In this period they became frequent two techniques to color the copies to distribute. The imbibizione consisted of dipping a film already developed in the shade that the clearest parts of the images, while those more ax they were black. In the toning, the film already developed was dipped in a chemical solution that the dark zones of the frame saturated, while those clearer were whiter. Jephtah's Daughter (it gives birth her of Iefte) of the Vitagraph, uses the dye for the scene of the miracle next to the fire. The reddish color suggests the light of the flames. The blue one was frequently used for the scenes that happened at night, the green for the scenes ambientate in the nature and so street. For normal scenes to the daylight the color cuttlefish or the purple it was used. 

 

The Origins of the Cinema of animation

 

Since the beginnings of the history of the cinema you/they were realized film that made use of a certain type of animation. Emile Reynaud, projecting his/her sketches through the prassinoscopio, it was an important precursor of the cinema of animation. In quite a lot films of the origins skilled draftsmen that came from the theater of variety as James Stuart Blackton worked that it will be among the founders of the Vitagraph. The animation was used by the cinema industry beginning from 1906 when Blackton I realize Humorous Phases of Funny Faces (humorous Transformations of funny faces) for the Vitagraph. The film mainly consisted in sketches of faces that frame was transformed after frame. The sketches gradually appeared but they didn't give the impression of the movement up to the end, when in the faces they rotated the eyes. That same year the Pathé produced her thèàtre de petit Bob (The theater of the small Bob), in which the objects were patiently moved among the different exposures of every single frame with the purpose to animate the content of the box of the games of a little boy. Such procedure had called "to single frame" (frame-by-frame). To the first kind of animation The Haunted belongs Hotel (The hotel infested by the ghosts, (1907), of Blackton. Emile Cohl, that he/she had worked above all for the Gaumont since 1908 to 1910, was the first person to undertake full time in the animation. Its first cartoon was Fantasmagorie, where Cohl positions every sketch on a dish of glass illuminated from under, it traced then the image on the following sheet of paper making some least changes in the figures. How Mèliès, withdraws him from the cinema in the years Ten, living in poverty up to his/her death, happened in the 1938. In the United States also the famous draftsman of comic strips and artist of variety Windsor McCay starts to draw for the films of animation, initially to project them lasting his/her shows. Its first film was Little Nemo (The small Nemo), that finished turning in 1911, the film contains a prologue with the draftsmen that show as the numerous necessary sketches you/they are realized for the animation. In 1912, McCay made a second film of animation, The Story of to Mosquito (History of a mosquito) and in 1914 a bystander, Gertie the Dinosaur (Gertie the Dinosaur), both have as I break down rough set. In 1910 it begins the career animator of rag dolls of every time, Ladislav Starevicz. Been Born in Poland, it moves him to Russia where it realizes some brief films of animation in which you/they recite some bugs. Starevicz maneuvered the rag dolls with joints of metal, changing the position of it to every frame. Its more famous film is (The revenge of a cineoperatore, (1912). Starevicz realizes many other films of animation or with real characters in Russia; to burst some Bolshevik revolution in 1917, it runs away in Paris where continuous to work for decades. After 1912 the animation appeared with great regularity to the cinema. National cinematography.

 

Before World war

 

The initial period of the first world war represents a point of turn in the history of the cinema. In 1913 in Europe an extraordinary number of lungometraggi realizes him. Always in 1913 the serial emerged as one of the dominant narrative forms and, new less expensive techniques were introduced in the procedures of animation. To halves the years Ten, the realization of the lungometraggis leveled him on international standard. In some nations, the creation and the consolidation of the first great studies of production, or the work of single directors brought to the birth of those cinematography that you/they would have dominated then the history of the cinema for decades. Symbolic in this sense it is the case of the industry hollywoodiana that, unlike the flourishing French and Italian industries grown week himself/herself/themselves with the beginning of the war, went assuming its definitive form really in that years. The war had depths effects on the cinema of the whole world, some of which it is possible to warn today still perhaps. The war appointment influenced particularly on France and on Italy, allowing the American societies to fill the void created him. From 1916 so, the United States became the principal suppliers of films of the world market, position that you/they have maintained up to today, marking forever the history of the cinema. After the war, despite the multiplicity of the situations, the common objective was to compete with Hollywood. In some countries as Great Britain, there was an attempt of imitation of the American films, in others, also pursuing partly similar strategies, an autonomous experimentation also encouraged him in the hope to be able to oppose her/it to the production hollywoodiana. In the antecedent years the first world war the cinema was an industry national technical and stylistic Novelty reached in a Country they were quickly sights and you assimilate elsewhere. With the war this flow was interrupted. It grew so in some nations as Sweden, Russia and Germany the local production; instead France, Denmark and Italy accused a clean decline but they looked for equally to bring forth their cinema production. The Italian cinema flourished in the first halves the years Ten. 1914 was the year of one of the films more hailed of that period: Giovanni's Pastrone Cabiria, film set to Cartagine of the III century B.C., it develops him between abductions and human sacrifices, while the hero Fulvio and his/her strong slave Macistes try to save the protagonist. Among the scenes of a building destroyed from a volcanic eruption and temples where his/her children are sacrificed in the red hot statue of a Moloch they pay, Cabiria is also signalled for an innovative use of the resumptions realized with the cart, alternate to the static scenes. In fact the ability shown in the film was decidedly more influential, so much that the movement cart to the Cabiria became a recurrent element in the films of halves the years Ten. After the war Italy tries to regain a place in the world market. 

 

Russia

 

Before the war, the production was largely dominated by the Pathé, that had opened a study in Russia in 1908 and of the Gaumont. Also in Russia the credibility of the cinema industry was submitted to famous writers and scriptwriters. The block of the frontiers to the entrance in war of Russia, in 1914, it provokes the closing of the offices of a lot of societies of distribution foreigners, especially those German. Also the films coming from Italy stopped after its entrance in war in 1915, contributing to the growth of the national industry and the birth of new local societies, understood the third one in order of importance among the Russian societies, the Yermoliev. The two most important directors of the years of the war were Evgenij Bauer and Yakov Protazanov teachers of the melodramatic kind. Bauer landed to the cinema in the 1912. His/her masses in scene they distinguished him for a particular attention to the depth of the space; you take care of in the least details, characterized by strong bright contrasts, complexes movements of car, the films of Bauer soddisfavano the passion, typical of the public of that period, for the melancholy histories to the extreme and you center on morbid illnesses. The career of Protazanov, starts in 1912, mainly working for the Yermoliev. Big part of his/her films they were adaptations of famous works of Puskin and Tolstoj. It is the example of it the adaptation of the novella of Tolstoj Otets Serghij (Father Sergio 1917).

 

 

French cinema, German, Soviet in the Years '20

 

 

Despite the foreign competition, the French industry was able to give life to a various production. One of the sons-in-law that, otherwise from the other Countries, it continued to be successful in France it was the serial. The great companies as the Pathé and the Gaumont, had included that the productions in custom or the literary adaptations could economically be advantageous only if shown in different episodes, because in this way the usual frequenters of the cinema rooms would have been inclined to return for all the episodes. A smaller kind was the fantastic film, whose great author was Renè Clair. His/her first film, Paris here dort (Paris that he/she sleeps 1924), it narrated of a mysterious ray that paralyses the whole city, Her vojage imaginaire (The imaginary trip 1926), of Clair, where the protagonist imagines to be transported by a sorceress in a country of the you do, created with refined painted sets. These fantastic works recalled him the popular tradition of the first French cinema, using makeups of resumption and stylized scenographies typical of Velle and Mèliès. Also the comic kind keeps on being popular in France of the postwar period. Among the important comedies realized by Clair, A straw hat in Florence (A chapeau de paille of Italy, (1928). 

 

French impressionism

 

Between 1918 and 1923, a new generation of authors they explore the possibilities of the cinema as form of art. Their films showed a pictorial beauty of the image. The style of the impressionistic cinema comes down from the conviction of its authors, that the cinema considered as a form of art. The impressionists tried to create an emotional experience for the spectator, suggesting and evoking more than clearly affirming. In few words, the job of the art is that to create emotions according to a vision proper of the romantic aesthetics slow nineteenth-century. From a side, the impressionistic theorists held the cinema a synthesis of the other arts, in degree to create spatial relationships as the architecture, the painting and the sculptures. From the other side the cinema was seen how an expressive tool with unique possibility. All the theorists of the period agreed in to underline his/her extraneousness to the theater. In the attempt to define in more precise way the nature of the cinema image, some theorists made use of the concept of photogènie, referable idea to something of well more articulated than the current meaning of fotogenia. Louis Delluc was the first one to spread the idea of photogènie as quality that it distinguished the image filmica of the original object: turned into image, the object purchased a new expressiveness expressiveness, totally revealing himself/herself/itself to the spectator in a new light. Germaine Dulac for instance, realizes in 1923 some important impressionistic works as her souriante madams Beudet (The smiling madams Beudet) and Gossette (Ragazzina). Jacques Feyder, was one of the greatest directors of the years Winds, it realized different impressionistic films between 1923 and the 1926. The first important film of the impressionistic movement was her tenth Symphony (The dixième Symphonie 1918) of Abel Gance, the history of a composer that creates a symphony able to arouse such an impression on the listeners to be been considered direct descending from the nine of Beethoven. Gance remained the most popular among the impressionists, and after the successes with the Pathé the Films Abel Gance formed. The only impressionistic director remained to the borders of the industry was the critic and theorist Louis Delluc, that you/he/she gave life to a small house of production for his/her lower part film cost as Fièvre (Fever 1921). Another impressionistic author, Dimitri Kirsanov, worked with limited financial resources, picking up funds without the support of houses of production and realizing film to practically void cost as The ironies du destin (The irony of the destiny 1924) and Mènilmontant (1926).

The Russian Yermoliev, wanting to escape to the nationalization of the industry decided by the Soviet government, it established him to Paris in 1920 where the Films Albatros founds in the 1922. In 1923, the Albatros produced one of the most audacious films of the period, her brasier ardent (The ardent brazier), directed from Mosjoukine and from Aleksandr Volkov and the following year Kean, ou dèsordre et gènie (Kean or genius and lack of moderation), directed by Volkov. The Albatros produced film directed by French directors: Halves Epstein the years Winds and the Herbier, with which co - it produced her feu Mathias Pascal (The was Mattia Pascal 1925). The impressionism from 1918 to 1929, begins to decline different they were the reasons for the decline, before among the whole move of the affairs of many authors, then the important changes in the French industry that more difficulty they made for some of them keep on practicing the control on his/her own job. Another factor of diversification of the impressionistic cinema was tied up to the impact of the experimental films realized by the surrealist authors. On this tendency he/she wrote and it held lectures Dulac, that abandons the commercial cinema to realize a surrealist film in 1928, you coquille et the clergymen (The shell and the priest).  

 

 

German expressionism 

 

 

At the end of the war, Germany could boast a cinema industry, From 1918 up to the ascent of the Nazism the German production was second only to that of Hollywood for dimensions, technical innovations. In February of 1920, to Berlin, you/he/she was projected for the first time The bathroom of doctor Caligari (Das Cabinet des Dr.Caligari) of Robert Wiene. The critics thought that the style expressionist, in that period firmly affirmed already him in a lot of other arts, you/he/she had also arrived to the cinema. The expressionism had appeared around 1908, mainly in the field of the painting and the theater; adopted in different countries, it reached his/her most intense demonstration in Germany. A lot of artistic tendencies of the nineteenth century were founded on the realism and on the perception of the things, for instance the French impressionism. Contrarily, the expressionism represented a reaction to the realism, the attempt to express, through extreme distorsions, the truest and deep emotions, hidden below the surface of the reality. The example of the The bathroom of doctor Caligari showed as the reconstructions in study you/they could draw near to the stylization of the painting expressionist, to it they quickly followed other films expressionists, up to give life to a truth proper seam that would have lasted up to the 1927. Toward the end of the years Ten, the expressionism was become a style largely scrounged. In the classical cinema, the human figure is the most expressive element and the set, the customs and the illumination, they are normally subordinates to it; on the screen the three-dimensional space in which the action develops him is more main point than the bidimensional graphic qualities. In the works expressionists the action proceeds to starts, and the narration suffers some breaks or it shortly simply when the elements of the mass in scene prepare him in such a form to capture the attention of the spectator. In the films expressionists it was common the appeal to stylized surfaces, to symmetrical or distorted forms that you/they were often juxtaposed to others similar. The use of the stylization allowed to report different elements of the mass in scene. The use of symmetrical forms offered different possibilities to combine among them actors, customs and scenographies and to give so relief to the general composition. But perhaps the most common and obvious line of the expressionism is the use of distorted and exaggerated forms that you/they transform the objects. Even if the principal aspects of the style expressionist concerns the mass in scene, it is possible however to also individualize some constant ones in the use of the other cinema techniques. Generally the assemblage is simple, and it uses of solutions as the field-controcampo or the alternate assemblage. Besides these films possessed a slower rhythm in comparison to others of the same period, so that to allow the spectator to explore the different elements of the shot. The use of the taking car is more functional than spectacular. For this motive hardly movements of car are had or taken back particularly angolate, and and objective curtains to remain on a perpendicular line, more or less to the height of the eyes or the breast. Among the greatest films expressionists: Nosferatu the vampire (1922) of Friedrich W. Murnau, Hypocrite (1925), doctor Mabuse (1922) of Fritz Lang. The two only films that were realized after these years, are Faust of F.W.Murnau and the greatest film expressionist, Metropolis of Fritz Lang, that marked the end of the movement in practice. The two principal factors of the decline were the elevated costs of the last projections and the departure of different German directors, attracted by the offers coming from Hollywood.

 

 Soviet cinema in the Years '20

 

The era of the Soviet cinema after the Revolution can be separated in three periods. The first one during the Communism of war (1918 -1920), in which the Country was found in a situation of civil war, with enormous economic difficulties, that obviously they struck again on the cinema industry. A second, in which the cinema gave timid signs of resumption, characterized by the Economic New Politica (1921 -1924), projected to bring the Country out of the crisis. Finally, a last period (1925 -1933) characterized by the growth and by the exports in which production, distribution and exercise restarted to work. Russia faced two revolutions in the 1917. The before, in February, it eliminated the absolute power of the czar replacing him/it with a provisional government riformista. In October of the same year, Lenin drives a second revolution, culminated with the formation of the union of the Soviet Socialist Republics. The revolution exploded in February relatively had a modest impact on the cinema industry, strengthened him during the war. In 1918, to the Narkompros (the popular Police station for the education the regulation of the cinema industry is submitted. 1918 is recorded the first attempts of two young authors destined to become important in the years Winds, Dziga Vertov and Lev Kule.ov. The following year was founded the government School of cinematography. In the 1920 Kulèsov it drives the government School of cinematography and it gives life to his/her laboratory. In 1922 The Goskino was created for the government monopoly of the distribution. Sergej Michailovic Ejzen.tein, one of the greatest directors of the period, public an entitled book The assemblage of the attractions. The attempt with failed the Goskino to centralize the cinema distribution, the government decided to create to the purpose a new society; the first January 1925 was born the Sovkino. A primary objective was to produce film that embodied the communist ideology to also spread her/it in the most remote zones of the country. The Goskino remained in life for a certain period, devoting himself/herself/itself to small productions; among these however, it detaches the masterpiece of the Soviet cinema, as well as the first film to pick up a great success to the foreign countries, armors her Potëmkin (1925) of Ejzen.tein. Other great successes of this period were her mother (Mat'), Storms on Asia of Vsevolod Pudovkin that it collaborates with Kulesov. In March of 1928, the first lecture of the communist party develops him on the cinema matter. Another author of relief that its career had started in the years of the Revolution was Dziga Vertov, he/she wrote poetries and books of science fiction, it composed music, and it frequented the environments of the futurist artists. Between 1916 and 1917, Vertov becomes supervisor of the newsreels, in 1924 it begins to realize the first documentaries, in 1927 the sonorous one ago his/her entry in the cinema, bringing with if economic and technological complications.

 

 

Cinema. Hollywood

 

 

Between 1922 and 1930, the total sum of the chapters invested in the industry cinema crag from 78 to 850 million dollars. The weekly middle frequency in the cinema rooms of the United States doubles, and the export of the products Hollywoodiani continues to increase up to halves the years Winds. A strategic factor of the expansion of the industry was the purchase and the construction of salt cinema from the great houses of production, that assured him in this way a distribution channel for his/her own films. If in the years Ten the cinema industry was consolidated, in the following decade it turned him into a sophisticated system of institutions. The most indicative factor of this growth was the tendency of the industry toward a concentration type vertical. The greatest societies organized him so that to combine the production and the distribution with the ownership of chains of salt cinema. In the first times, these chains essentially developed him to local level. Just a group of shopkeepers of salt launches in 1917 the challenge to the power hollywoodiano creating an own house of distribution the First National Exhibitor's Circuit, with center to Philadelphia. Another important society of that years, that tried a concentration type vertical, it was the Loewìs Inc, his/her founder, Marcus Loew, in 1919 it purchases a society of averages dimensions, the Meter, then driven by Louis B.Mayer; with the following acquisition in the 1924 of the Goldwyn Pictures, Loew creates that that would be become, after the Paramount, the second cinema society in Hollywood, the Meter Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM). The companies to vertical concentration that the greatest part of the chains of salt cinema, the Paramount Publix, the MGM and the First National checked, constituted her/it Three great. Subsequently the Small Five or the Universal become, Fox, Producers Distributing Corporation, Film Booking Office and Warner Bros. During the years Tweentys, started to affirm him the generation of directors that you/they would have dominated the three following decades of the American cinema: John Ford, King Vidor and other famous names as D.W.Griffith (already author of Birth of a Nation, Eric von Stroheim, Murnau. The greatest success of David Wark Griffith fur Her two orphans (1922). Griffith makes an epic movie, America (1924), on the American Revolution, it realizes two films of which the most ambitious was Abraham Lincoln (1930), insane females (1922) of Eric von Stroheim, the career of the director interrupted him with the advent of the sonorous one.  

 

Introduction of the Sonorous one

 

Between 1926 and 1927 the Warner Bros realizes film with music and sound effects as the film The singer of jazz. The sonorous influence also the style. The greatest part of the cineastis him made account that the sonorous one, if used with imagination, you/he/she could offer an important expressive resource. In 1929 the sound was by now is adopted by all the Studios  American. Great Britain builds one study-system that it imitated that of Hollywood.  

 

Hollywood

 

 

After the 1896 first projections, the production of film quickly spread in England. Initially the greatest part of the films were gathered and you/he/she was shown as I number only inside the program of a show musc-hall (the equivalent of the Italian variety show). Beginning from 1897, gl shows of lower part short films price they also spread in the fairs where they recalled the public of the working class. To the beginning the greatest part of the English films founded him on very simple subjects or drawn by the actuality. The first English films became famous for their spectacular special effects. Cecil Hepworth, produced for example film beginning from 1899, assembling himself/herself/itself on the themes of actuality, but soon it also started to make movie full of makeups and effects, and it ended up becoming the most important producer in the period between 1905 and the 1914. Other producers were shed in England; the most important formed the small but influential group that the School of Brighton was denominated then by the name of the city where they worked, the class president were George Albert Smith and James Williamson, both photographers, that passed to the cinema in the 1897. Both built small studies opened by a side to make to enter the light and they experimented different ways to use the special effects and the assemblage that the directors of other countries subsequently influenced. The Big Swallow (The great bit 1900) of Williamson.

 

 

Recording of the Sound

 

 

The introduction of the sonorous one changes in meaningful way the presentation of the films in the rooms. You. A lot of rooms could not afford masks that accompanied the spectators to their places anymore. To the search of new entrances, the shopkeepers began to sell candies, pop-corn and drinks. Considering that many spectators could spend few, additionally to the usual short films the custom of the double ones was inaugurated and at times triple shows: the second film was usually a series lower part B I cost. Another makeup of the shopkeepers to attract the spectators they were the prizes: an extraction of winning tickets or a pillow memory together with the ticket. The most effective initiatives were the dishes night, in which every ticket gave right to a stoviglia of porcelain, to that the room had purchased I thicken him: to complete a whole set of earthenwares the families you/they had to return every week. During the second world war the increase of the public made to fall in disuse some of these incentives: the production of serious B lost importance, but the double show remained, as the block of the refreshments. The expansion of the industry in the years Winds you/he/she had given birth to born a lot of societies of technical services and multiplied the departments in the Studios . The revolution of the sonorous one had been the first fruit of the technological growth of the sector. Through the efforts of the studioses, of the technicians and of institutions of coordination as the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, the cinema technique became more versatile and sophisticated. The methods of recording of the sound suffered a constant improvement. The first microphones were not directional and they gathered noises not wanted produced by troupe and machineries, but you/they were gradually developed models that could be aimed toward the select sonorous source. The first bulky auctions from microphone were replaced soon by lighter and versatile giraffes. On to end more of 1932 the progress in the recording footsteps audio they allowed to separately record music, voices and effects that would have been then mixati together on an only sonorous footstep. In the same year the solution was also inaugurated to stamp identical numbers on the borders of the negative ones of the image and the sonorous one, also allowing an accurate synchronization of brief shots. The effects of these progress were appreciable soon: the actors were not more forced to stir to plushy footsteps and to slowly pronounce the wisecracks, and the gloomy incedere of many gods first spoken film surrendered the footstep to a more vivacious rhythm. This new flexibility is evident in the 1932 most disparate productions, competent Tip, I am a fugitive The doctor Jekyl of Rouben Mamoulian. The first sonorous cinema effected the recording on multiple footsteps it favored the introduction of that that would have called sonorous column. It was above all Steiner to fix the musical customs of the Studios: his/her emphatic score for King Kong it had vast influence as one of the first examples of symphonic style. Steiner loved citharas in his/her scores you motivate recognizable to underline the meaning of a scene; as in The sergeant York (1940).  

 

 

Movements of Movie Machine

 

Many of first sonorous films resorted to movements of  movie machine, even if this usually asked for to turn the mute scene and to add subsequently the sound, or to build complex marchingegni to move the heavy box of resumption. A shot in movement detached inside the film, that was often realized to multiple camcorder jeopardizing the fluidity of the narration. They started so to use coverings that reduced the noise of the camcorder, that however lifted a new problem: they were too much heavy for the traditional tripods, and more difficulties to be moved from a shot and the other. The solution was a solid support but also easy to move; single operators and society of services created versions improved of the dollies and of the crane already used on to end some epoch of the mute one. 1932 was also in this circle one year of turn, with the introduction of the Rotambulator of Bell & Howell ; It dealt with a dolly of over three quintals that the taking car could vertically lift from 45 cms up to two meters high, allowing the operator to make pannings, to bend aloft or in low and to easily move on a cart. The Panoram Dolly of the Fearless Company (1936) you/he/she could pass through an opening of 90 cms. The movements with the crane also became more communes. To the west nothing again All Quiet on the Western Front, of Lewis Milestone, (1930) of the Universal using the gigantic arm of fifteen meters built in 1929 for Broadway. The famous dolly inside going  with the wind, (1939) on the enormous bench railway flood of wounded confederates with a crane was realized for constructions. In the musical registered fiabesco MGM. The magician of Oz (1939), the taking car falls on the city of Munchkin and on the road of the Yellow Bricks.

 

Technicolor 

 

 

The most spectacular innovation of the epoch was the color. The system to double film of the Technicolor had been used every now and then in the films in Hollywood during the years Winds and it survived up to the first years of the sonorous one, but it was expensive and it produced colors between the rosy orange and the blue greenish. In the first years Thirty the Technicolor inaugurates a new taking car endowed with prisms to divide the light that originated from the objective on three different films in black and white, one apiece of the primary colors. The technique was proposed to the public by Disney in the short film animate Flowers and trees (1932). The Pioneer Picture, a small house of independent distribution, produced in 1935 a musical short film taken back from alive, The Cucaracha, showing that the Technicolor could also return vivacious colors in a theater of laying. That same year, the film Becky Sharp of Rouben Mamoulian, showed that the color could enrich the charm of a historical play. The Major were therefore pleased to adopt the novelty, and the society had the opportunity to monopolize the trial, furnishing the special taking cars, offering supervisors to every single production, developing and stamping the film.

 

 

Styles of Shooting

 

In the first years Thirty big part of the operators they used an image. vanished based on the diffused stylistic fashion of the years Winds. Now however the effect flou became less extreme and more uniform: the appeal to showy filters or to plates of glass anointed and distorting you/he/she was sensitively reduced, and the laboratories of the studioses started to make the greyest and vanished film in the phase of development. In 1931 the Eastman Kodak introduced the Super film Sensitive Panchromatic, proper for the diffused light produced by the incandescence lamps that you/they were made following the introduction of the sonorous one necessary. A diffused practice among the American directors of the thirties was to relatively assemble the actors in a deprived area of depth for then to pass from one to alternating fields and controcampi. Others preferred to compose deeper shots, even leaving in the foreground out slightly fire the area or maintaining to fire the whole image. The director Orson Welles and the operator Gregg Toland developed the concept of the depth of fire and they did an extensive use of it in Fourth power. A lot of the shots in depth of the film are gotten with the optic printer, clearly combining plain to fire separately turned; in some cases certain elements in first plan are prepared very near all '' objective and to notable distance from those on I break down him/it, and all perfectly results to fire: the most spectacular example is the long scene of the signature of the contract. Welles still experimented on this solution in the his/her according to film The pride of the Ambersons (1942), for which the operator Stanley Cortez got a lot of shots with depth of fire without resorting to photographic makeups. The influence of these innovative films visually spread soon in the whole cinema and to compose shots on plain distant among them equally to fire it became common practice. Overall, the technological innovation between 1930 and 1945 didn't change the cinema in Hollywood in substantial way: the narrative action and the psychology of the characters were central and the rule of the contiguity assured a traditional orientation in the space of the film. Sound, color, depth of fire and other techniques brought nevertheless important innovations in the style.   

 

 

Dictatorships of Right and Left

 

 

During the thirties some cinematography were found under the control of dictatorships of right and left, particularly in USSR, in Germany and in Italy: all were well aware of the potentialities of the cinema as mean of propaganda over that of diversion and both the functions owed cohabit during the war. Government control assumed different forms. The cinematography of the various Countries that composed USSR beginning from 1919 were nationalized by the Soviet government that imposed a management centralized that you/he/she would subsequently be stiffened in the thirties. Government control, could assume however other forms: the Nazi regime that taken the power in 1933 in Germany believed in the capitalism and didn't want to forfeit the houses of production deprived, but it got of it equally the control pacifically purchasing her one after the other. Still different it was the situation in Italy, where the State practiced the control with supports to the industry and errands of censorship, without however to nationalize the production. In 1930, the first quinquennial floor centralized the Soviet cinema in an unique society, the Sojuzkino to the purpose to make the most efficient industry and to free USSR from the obligation to import technology and film.

To dominate the inside market, the number of produced film had to be increased: in the 1932 new factories they furnished the necessary film, while the conversion to the sonorous one was by now completed, and with a limited appeal to foreign resources. Nevertheless the tied up problems to ineffectiveness of various kind and a scarce production however irrisoltis stayed. The period 1930-1945 also saw to become stiff the control on the films. Bons Sumjatskij was since the beginning to head of the Sojuzkino and directly answered to losif Stalin, that showed great interest for the cinema. Sumjatskij had a preference for amusing film and of easy understanding; under his/her regime, the movement avant-gardist of the assemblage was not able whether to extinguish him. In 1935, it was Sumjatskij to look at the introduction in the cinema of the doctrine of the socialist realism. More unusual it was a film of Aleksandr Medvedkin, of which we have testimony it is the only his/her lungometraggio, you happiness, (1934), where a farmer, Kymyr, withstands the reforms of the Revolution and seeks the happiness in the individual comfort while Ann, his/her oppressed wife, enters to belong to a collective farm and persuades Kymyr to unite to her. Medvedkin uses a comic register to describe the initial poverty of the couple and the stupidity of soldiers and priests. Largely ignored in 1934, The happiness was rediscovered in the sixties by the criticism, that recognized the importance of it.

 

The Doctrine of the Socialist Regime

 

 

The socialist realism was an aesthetical principle introduced by the 1934 Soviet Writers Congress, Zdanov, official cultural member of the Politbjuro, explained: "The companion Stalin has called our writers engineers of human souls. What does it mean? What duties are I/you/they conferred you by this title? It everything means to know the life, so that to be able to describe her/it truthfully in the works of art: not in a dead and scholastic way, not simply as 'objective reality', but to describe the reality in his/her revolutionary development."

This politics would have remained in vigor, until toward halves the fifties, the cinema you he quickly conformed. Every artist was forced to stick to the socialist realism. Stalin governed from absolute dictator, the politics of the government was let from a hard repression and the secret police respected it was ready to rouse the dissent wherever it nested. From the years Winds in then the purgations were on its way, all the members of the Party suspected not to sustain Stalin with the maximum convection were periodically expelled, imprisoned, exiled or executed: the kingdom of the terror reached the peak between 1936 and 1938 with trials show in which the heads of the Party confessed in writing to have participated to activity controrivoluzionarie, the artists they were not immune from similar persecutions. Vsevolod Mejerchol'd, the ancient mentor of Ejzen.tein, theatrical director disappeared during the 1938 purgations; writers of first floor as Sergej Tret'jakov and Isaak Babel' they were secretly executeds. Also the composer Dmitrij Sostakovic, although in disagreement with the precepts of the new doctrine, owed obey you. The socialist realism became the official line of the cinema in January 1935, to the Syndical Creative Lecture of the Workers of the Soviet Cinema. Ciapaiev, that had gone out as soon as two months before you/he/she was quoted for the whole lecture; Ejzen.tein, contrarily, was aimed at by all the presents in clear attempt to discredit those people who had followed the theories of the assemblage. Other regigistis were forced to admit past errors; Lev Kulesov declared: As others my colleagues whose names are tied up to a whole series of bankrupt productions, I want to be to every cost, and I will be an extraordinary revolutionary artist, but I will be only it when my meat and my blood, my whole organism and my being, will be fused with the cause of the Revolution and the Party. Despite this humiliating action of contrition, Kulesov is pronounced in defense of Ejzen.tein. The cineastis could not hope to pass unnoticed: Stalin was an impassioned of cinema and saw many films in his/her private apartments; and Sumjatskij, his/her representative forehand, had the industry in fist. Before the screen-plays to be approved you/they had to repeatedly pass through a complex apparatus of censorship, but also to initiated resumptions a film was able revision to be submitted to or interrupted in any moment: a bulky bureaucratic system that the production, so much that for every thirties the number of completed film was below the total programmed. To make a film had to be submitted us to minute ideological controls losing whole years: the most spectacular case of this type of interference was Bezin lug (II lawn of Bezhin), the first sonorous project of Ejzen.tein in USSR, of which Sumjatskij made to interrupt the workmanship in the 1937. relatively few cineastis suffered the most extreme punishments, but the victims didn't miss: the critic and scriptwriter Adrian Piotrovskij, that you/he/she had script Cortovo Koleso (it rotates her some devil), a film of the 1926 of Kozincev and Trauberg were arrested in 1938 and they died in a field of imprisonment, the operator Vladimir Nilsen, a student of Ejzen.tein, disappeared to Konstantin Eggert.

 

 

The Principal genres of the Socialist Realism

 

 

Following the success of Ciapaiev the films on the civil war became an important genres of the cinema of the socialist realism; despite the a lot of sufferings from it you provoke, many legionaries reminded her/it as the pre-Stalinist era when the objectives of the communism were clear and it were had the impression that the things could quickly change. The film Us of Kronstadt (My iz Kronstadta of Efim Dzigan 1936) it is remaking of Ciapaiev, from which he differentiates only for the choice of an I was, to the place of a historical character. The film develops him in 1919, during the fierce fights happened next to Kronstadt: the sailor Balachov to the beginning is undisciplined, a woman boards for road and divides unwillingly his/her rations with the workers and the children of the near Pietroburgo; little by little. after being escaped the execution from the White troops and to have born the deprivations of the battle, learn to embrace without egoism the cause of the Revolution. Ciapaiev brings in the foreground the biographical kind, often the protagonists were famous figures of the Revolution and the Civil War. In theory USSR he was turning into a society without classes; of fact, the period saw to affirm him the cult of the personality. The most important intellectuals of the Revolution were devoted biographical film: The deputy of the Baltic one (Deputai Bal'tiki, of Aleksandr Zarkij 1937), ambientato immediately after the Revolution of October, where it tells him in romanced way the history of a scientist that had welcomed with favor the regime bolscevice despite the sneer of the colleagues. In reality, many intellectuals were opposed, but the Deputy of the Baltic one had to show the union of the classes under the communism: the elderly teacher protagonist makes friends with a group of sailors; at the end its book is published, Lenin sends him a letter of congratulations. Maksim Gor'kij was considered the maximum literary exponent of the socialist realism with the novel the mother published in the 1907. After his/her death, Mark Donskoij realizes three based films on his/her juvenile memories: The infancy of Gor'kij, (1938), V Ijudjakh (Among the people 1939), Moi universitety (Her my universities 1940). The trilogy of Gorkij underlines the lack of scholastic education of the protagonist: of poor origins, it moves him of job in job observing the oppressive aspects of the czarist society but also occasionally meeting people that withstand (a kind local chemist arrested for revolutionary activity a lame child that treasures the most minute joys of the life). The Stalinist historians chose two czars, Ivan the Terrible one and Pietro I (also says the Great one), to paint as sovereigns progressive authors of important reforms for the overcoming of the feudal society and the to rise some capitalism, preparing so the road to the communism. The epic film in two parts of Vladimir Petrov,  Pietro the great horizons of glory (Piotr Pervji, 1937 -1938) it was the first film devoted to the Czars. Communes were the histories of heroism of common people as the film Biancheggia a solitary sail (1937) it tells the adventurous share of his/her/their children to tries her/it revolution of the 1905. Ambientato to Odessa, the film contains references to Armors her Potëmkin.  

 

 

The German Cinema under the Nazism

 

 

The war had brought enormous losses to USSR, and the industry of the cinema was found to have to restart the production in the regular studies reconstructing the structures of the Lenfìlm reduced to ruins in the siege of Leningrado. Victory allows USSR to maintain the nationalization of the cinema. Despite many German cineastis they departed for Hollywood in the years Winds, different films of I detach you/they were realized between 1930 and the Nazi taking of the power in the 1933: to direct they were them both the veterans of the mute one and some important new authors. The first sonorous film of Fritz Lang, already among the central figures of the German expressionism in the years Winds, were one of its masterpieces: M, the monster in Düsseldorf (M 1931) the history of an assassin of children whose crimes, provoking continuous catches of the police, they become a problem series for the whole world of the gangsterism, to the point that the criminals capture the monster and they try him/it in an impromptu court. Lang uses sound and images to create parallel among the police and a criminal world highly organized and knows how to take advantage of outside the field the space to tell the scenes shocking, showing with his/her stylistic inventiveness the immediate mastery of the sonorous cinema. Lang also gave a succession to his The 1922 Doctor Mabuse, with The will of Doctor Mabuse (1933), in which the criminal continues to govern his/her gang from an insane asylum and even from the afterlife. II antiwar message of Westfront 1918 are submitted to a bitter symbolism to the realistic description of the conditions to the front. In 1933 all these directors - Lang, Pabst, Ophuls and Sagan - they worked by now out of Germany, also because the Nazis were conquering the power.

 

Film of the Nazi epoch

 

 

In 1942, all the German houses of production were unified under a gigantic Holding called UFA-film (but shortened in UFI, to distinguish her/it from the old UFA). The UFI checked the whole chain, from the production to the management of the rooms, having absorbed 138 societies in all the sectors of the industry, included the structures of Austria and Czechoslovakia, that Hitler had meanwhile conquered. Despite this effort the number of the films produced in Germany was not able to satisfy the question the beginning of the war in 1939 it marks the beginning of the productive decline. The horror for the Nazi ideology has done yes that the modern spectators have seen few some films of that period, with the exception of those more avowedly propagandist as The triumph of the wish, Siuss the Hebrew studied above all as you document historical. Vigorously the first propagandist films appeared in the 1933: know-man Brand of Franz Seitz, Hans Westmar of Franz Wenzler, young II Hans' Steinhoff Hitleriano Quex. For today's public, Lenì Riefenstahl is the most famous cineasta of the Nazi epoch, actress of fame in the period of the mute one, Lenì Riefenstahl was directed in the sonorous lungometraggio her beautiful maledetta, 1932 where it interpreted an of elf of mountain.  Another very interesting film is her citadel of the heroes the film it tells a fact really happened in the Napoleonic wars, when the citizens of a small Prussian city had grasped the weapons to defend despite the local military authorities you/they had decided to surrender: at the end people is defeated, the film underlines its brave resistance to French. At the end of the years Winds, the entrepreneur Stefano Pittalunga tries to revive the Italian cinema industry creating a society you/he/she purchases the old Study of the Cines. For a few years, the new Cines dominates the Italian production, above all because it was the only one to possess equipments for the recording of the sound. When the Italian economy was stricken from the crisis, the government it begins to sustain different industries and the cinema it was object of a series of protectionist laws the government it guaranteed some benefits on the base of the collections, he/she forced the rooms to project a datum number of Italian film, the government it taxed the foreign films and it established a fund to confer prizes to film of high quality. In 1932 the regime of Mussolini inaugurates the Show of the Cinema in Venice, conceived as international showcase for the Italian films. In 1932 the decline of the Cines happens, the Lux is born, Manenti, Titanus, was, at the end of the thirties the national production could count on around quarantacinque film a year. The government recognizes the cinema industry as he forces ideological that had to not deteriorate, you/he/she creates the General Direction for the Cinematografìa (1934), directed by Luigi Freddi ex supervisor of the office it Publicizes some Fascist Party, Cold it surprisingly distinguished him in the new charge for an attitude liberista in comparison to the ways of the government intervention, the State had to encourage and to reward the industry but not to pretend to drive her/it of authority. Convinced that the Italian spectators would heavily have refused propagandist film, Cold him team with the producers to increase a cinema next to the spirit hollywoodiano. A trip in Berlin confirmed its convictions the Nazis, it sustained, you/they had damaged the German cinema with coercion blind and authoritarian, while Cold he/she believed that a had a good time public would have been a calm public. This point of view brought the government to a series of new choices. In 1935 the ENIC (Corporate body National Cinema Industries) was born, which authority was given to intervene in every sector of the cinema. The enic notices the society of Pittaluga, producing some films, it absorbs some chains of salt and it begins to distribute film. In 1935 the Studies Cines were destroyed from a fire, Cold  to the construction of Cinecittà, a modern complex of government theaters of laying to the outskirts in Rome that also entertained soon sonorous twelve theaters of laying. In the 1935 Colds deep the school of cinema, the Experimental Center of Cinematography; two years after the Center it launches the magazine, White and black. To the Experimental Center of Cinematography the best directors, actors and Italian technicians are formed, the investment of the government in the culture feeds the international prestige. The Biennal exhibition in Venice and the Show of the Cinema, gave of Italy the image of a modern and cosmopolitan country, and foreign directors of the level of Max Ophuls, Gustav Machaty, Jean Epstein and Abel Gance came to turn in the peninsula. Also the legislation did him more incisive: a law guaranteed government financings for many films to tall budget, encouraging the banks to invest to them turns in the production. The Law Ensigns of 1938 it gave a commensurate direct help to the number of sold tickets to the producers, favoring so the ves popular and the most prolific societies; of impact as many strong it was the Law on the Monopoly of the same year, that gave the control to the ENIC on all the imported (and it brought four of the most important American houses to withdraw their production from Italy) films. The Italian cinema never became a political cinema nationalized as that of Germany or of USSR: the ENIC checked only a small fraction of the market and produced few films; as Stalin, Mussolini saw in preview every single film realized in the Country, but it rarely made them forbid. At the same time, despite the assistance of the government, the Italian industry didn't succeed in becoming self-sufficient and remained in passive for every thirties. In general, the regime limited him to subsidize a fragile sector leaving him/it to a large extent in private hands.

 

A New Realism

 

 

The 1938 legislation had created a dynamic industry, articulated in over a dozen of poles of production and distribution, but the aware Cold (what from 1941 it was president of the ENIC and supervisor of Cinecittà) it brought in life the Cines as society semigovernativa. Also without being tentacled as the German UFI, between 1942 and 1943 the new Cines produced more films of any other society. The flow of public and the production it grew to levels unprecedented: 89 lungometraggis in 1941, 119 in 1942; an upsurge that started the career of young directors that you/they would have become famous in the postwar period. During the war the regime didn't try to summon the industry: rather, the general direction, under Eitel Monaco, the successor of Colds, made the most tolerant censorship. In general among the youngest intellectuals, dismayed from the military adventures of the regime and from the dogmatists educational systems, they started to grow stronger on to end some years thirty antifascist tendencies an atmosphere that favored the birth of new artistic tendencies. One of these, said calligrafismo for its decorative impulses and its rejection of the social reality, returned to the theatrical traditions of the nineteenth century: typical examples are A hit of gun of Renato Castellani (1942) drawn by one of the Stories of Belchin of Puskin, Street of the five moons from a novella of Matilde Serao (1942). The aspirant directors suffered the influence of the films of the school of the Soviet assemblage projected to the Experimental Center, of the French poetic realism and of the directors populisti in Hollywood as Goat and Vidor. In the 1939 Michelangelo Antonioni it imagines a film on the River Po that told a history describing the life along the shores that it became the short film People of the Po (1943/47). During the years of the many war of them they express new trust in the dialects, in the resumptions in external and in the actors not professionals, The white ship of Roberto Rossellini (1941), it almost tells a play of naval war in way documentaristico, film as Steel of Walter Ruttmann (1933) and I Bring of Amieto Palermi (1935) the precursors can be considered toward a new realism they were three films of the first years Forty, Four footsteps among the clouds of Blasetti (1942), his/her children look us (1943). An article of Umberto Barbaro invoked a neoralism analogous to that of French film as The port some fogs and it suggested that Obsession could point out the road, Obsession is straight more next to the American noir that to the neoralism of the postwar period. In 1943 the Allies disembarked in southern Italy and the government of Mussolini it runs away to the North establishing the Republic of Salò; the last fascists and the German troops occupied the regions of the north and the center and owed face the movement partisan of armed resistance. The Italian cinema production suffers a precipitous arrest and doesn't take back him up to 1945, when the memoirs of the Resistance and the appointment to describe the daily life would have been the sources of primary inspiration of the neoralism.  

 

 

The industry and the French Cinema in the thirties

 

 

 The advent of the sonorous one gave her a new impulse since the stages asked for dialogues in French and the prosperity of beginning decade it flowed in a light increase of the production. But the French cinema was not saved by the crisis that it struck Europe, United States, Germany and Japan they produced every hundred film a year. In the years Winds, big part of the French productive sector was composed from small private societies that often realized only a film contracting strong debts and failing later immediately, some deceitful entrepreneurs founded small houses of production so that to get loans, for then to disappear with the money and to leave the directors in the troubles; other projects were interrupted for lack of funds. In 1934 her Gaumont-Franco-film-Aubert it grazed the bankruptcy and solo a government loan you/he/she could save her/it. The Pathé-Natan had analogous problems in 1936 (complicated by the fact that one of his/her heads, Bernard Natan, you/he/she was arrested) and owed be divide in smaller society. In 1935, the French films conquered more than halves the national market. Many important French films of the thirties were prestigious productions of high-level, often literary adaptations as "Crime and punishment" (of Pierre Chenal1935).As in many French films of the epoch, the conventional interlacement is accompanied to a splendid photo and allows the actors to emerge: The lake of the virgins marks the debut both of Jean Pierre Aumont and of Simone Simon, also reserving a small role to Michel Simon. Among these II certainly detaches I romance of a cheater (Her roman of a tricheur 1936) drawn by one novel of his devoted to a cheat: the whole film is narrated in very original way by the voice of the protagonist, that pronunciation also the dialogue of all the characters, men and women. Julien Duvivier, active in all the seams of the French cinema of the thirties, it turns in the 1932 Pel of carrot (Poil de carotte 1925) protagonist is a boy whose happy character meets him with a tyrannical mother and an indifferent father that it delays to the point to bring him/it a step away from the suicide before declaring him its affection. The sophisticated style of Pel of carrot and the resumptions in external of the country they contribute to a touching history, reported to a large extent from the point of view of the boy.

 

The Italian Neoralism

 

 

In Italy among 1945. 1951 are born the neoralism a movement that is approached in different way to the cinema of pretense and it had enormous influence on the cinema of other Countries. With the fall of Mussolini, the Italian cinema industry lost his/her organizational center. In Italy ally military strengths cooperated with the American societies to try to assure the dominion of the market and a lot of houses of production to the United States owed reappraise. While the inside societies laboriously fought for surviving, the cinema neoralist imposed him as a strength of cultural and social renewal. During the decline of the fascist regime, in the literature and in the cinema an impulse realist had appeared on the surface, Four footsteps among the clouds of Alexander Blasetti, 1942, his/her children look us of Vittorio De Sica, 1943, Obsession of Luchino Visconti, 1942 and other films.  

 

 Giuseppe De Santis wrote:

 

"We are convinced that one day we will create our more beautiful film, following the slow and tired footstep of the worker that peat house."

 

 

The Italian cinema was famous in Europe for its marvelous scenographies in study, but the studies of Cinecittà had suffered heavy damages during the war and they were not able to entertain great productions, for which the cineastis him spostarano in the roads and in the countries. Since after years of Italian doppiaggio of foreign film Italy had improved by now the art of the synchronization of the sonorous one, the troupes could turn in external and to record subsequently the dialogue. Another novelty was the critical examination of the recent history. The films neoralists proposed contemporary histories with a popular forehead perspective: the plot in Rome city open of Roberto Rossellini, real events you/he/she was inspired to happened in the winter among 1943 and 1944. the protagonists have involved in the struggle against the German troops that occupied Rome; the trust and the personal sacrifice tightly tie the saboteur Manfredi, its friend Francis, the woman of these, Pine cone and the priest Don Pietro, The film withdraws the resistance as the alliance between communists and Catholics beside the population.  In the Paisà, of Rossellini, there is a kaleidoscopic vision of the entrance of the Allies in Italy: the six episodes of the film follow the movement of the American strengths from Sicily up to the lowland padana. More fragmentary and documentaristico in Rome open city, Paisà puts not only to fire the struggle between the partisan and the occupying strengths but also the tensions, the incomprehensions and the occasional affinities that rose between the population and the American troops. Well soon the cineastis pass from the partisan heroism to social problems, few realistic works represent the postwar period in more vivid way of Thieves of bicycles (of Vittorio De Sica, 1948) the protagonist, Curly it turns him to every institution, Police, church verified, but nobody is able to recover the stolen bicycle and many they are indifferent to its tragedy, with his/her/their child Bruno is forced to wander for the city in an useless search. Curls it tries to steal in turn a bicycle and Bruno it looks at him/it prey to the shock of whom sees to collapse all the certainties on his/her own father. To Curly the arrest and Bruno you/he/she is saved, that ax the brittleness of his/her/their father, painfully reaffirms its love picking him/it for hand up. The scriptwriter of the film, Cesare Zavattini, had often more times the desire to make a film that limited him to follow a man for ninety minutes of his/her life. Other films of the cinema of the Italian neoralism explore the rural life, Laughed Bitter it describes, to you treat with a certain emphasis, the exploitation of young busy women in agricultural jobs husks her/it some rice (hard ache is paid, you in dormitories that seem fields of imprisonment), another important work that puts in prominence the hard regional life it is the film of Luchino Visconti her Earth it trembles a free adaptation of the novel of the Reluctance of Giovanni Verga, that withdraws the unlucky rebellion of Sicilian fishermen against the wholesalers of fish that exploit them.  During the projection of the film Viscounts' Obsession, Vittorio Mussolini gives birth of the Duce, you/he/she had gone out raging from the room howling This is not Italy, big part of the films neoralists aroused from the officials of the postwar period a similar reaction: the portrait of a desolate Country and struck by the poverty it made to rage political anxious to show that Italy was on the street of the democracy and the prosperity. The Catholic church condemned many films for their anticlericalismo and for the way according to which you/they described the life and the sexual habits of the working class, while the left attached the pessimism and the lack of an explicit declaration of political faith of it. Few works neoralists were popular near the public. In 1949, the law Andreotti fixes limits to the importations and quotas on the screens, but it also set the bases to furnish loans to the houses of production. To grant a loan, nevertheless a government errand had to approve the screen-play, and the deprived films of a political point of view were winning with great sums, besides to a film the license of export could be denied if Italy defamed. The law Andreotti had created in short a preventive censorship. The movement coincided with a general abandonment of the neoralism, some authors they looked for and they found an ambientazione neorealistica turning melodramas and traditional love stories in regions that offered a picturesque local color; others explored a vein of allegorical imagination as in the film Miracle to Milan of Vittorio De Sica and it plot her ammazzacattivi, of Rossellini 1948.

 

Spanish neoralism

 

 

Spain offers an illuminating example of the influence of the Italian neoralism, in the 1939 Franco you/he/she had won the civil war and established a fascist dictatorship. After the second world war Spain gradually reenters in the world community, but a regime Nation is authoritarian up to destination of the years'70. the cinema industry was checked by a National Office that censored screen-plays before the resumptions, it imposed the doppiaggio of all the films in the Castilian official language and it created a government monopoly on newsreels and documented. The regime demanded devoted film and chauvinists, the result was a series of plays on the civil (cine cruzada) war, historical sagas, religious film and literary adaptations, among which a Don Quixote de the Mancha of Rafael Gil, (1947) that the hero idealist of Cervantes compared to Franco.  In the first years '50, however, difficulties started to be clear. The CIFESA, the greatest house of production of the precedent decade, you invest too much money in ambitious productions and faults: the reaction to the failure of the superproduzionis was for instance the apparition of lower part film cost Surcos (Furrows), of Jose Anthony Nieves Conde, (1951) film that faced social problems, often using himself/herself/itself the way neoralist of resumptions in real places and of actors not professionals. To the school of cinema IIEC (founded in the 1947) the students had the possibility to see forbidden foreign film to the great public in 1951, in a week devoted to the Italian cinema, to the IIEC they were projected Thievish of bicycles, Miracle in Milan, Rome open city, Paisà and Chronicle of a love, some alumni of the school immediately founded later, a magazine, Objectivo, devoted neoralists to the discussion of the ideas. Of enormous success in Spain, Welcome Mr. Marshall! a satire of the increasing American strapotere, launched stabs to the films in Hollywood and the Spanish folklore, it appealed to the united popular. The tone was confirmed in following films of Berlanga as Calabuig (Id., 1956), a parody of the run to the armaments, and I promulgate of fact what you/he/she would have been defined aesthetical franquista, an ironic or mocking treatment of harmless subjects apparently. Welcome Mr.Marshall! it was select to officially represent Spain to the Festival of Cannes in spite of the controversies on his/her anti-American position it got a special mention. The film also launches the career of Bardem, that I/you/he/she am he/she affirms on the international scene with The egoists, Muerte de a bicyclist, (1955), Calle Mayor (Id., 1956), that won the prize of the Criticism to the Show of the Cinema in Venice, Calle  Mayor, a fierce accusation to the narrowness and the masculine egotism of province, remembers, The vitellonis, but and deprived of the humor of Fellini.  The French Cinema of the Postwar period

 

 

France with his/her cinema of art, the return of many important authors of pre-war and to emerge with young experimenters; the Scandinavian cinema reaches the footlights thanks to cineasti coming from the theatrical experience that you/they contributed to give form to the dawning cinema of author; the English, overall less prone to the experimentation, they met a new popularity in the English-speaking Countries. Co-productions, export and festival contributed to offer an international stage to the films. The first decade of the postwar French cinema was dominated by what a critic it defined in 1953 the cinema of quality, a term to the beginning rather ample, but well identified with determined directors and scriptwriters. The tradition of quality contemplated to a production of prestige and you/he/she was constituted in maximum part by adaptations of classical literary, so much that the creative role of the scriptwriter was often considered equal, if not superior, to that of the director. The interpreters were select among the most famous theaters and often the films were impregnate of that romanticism made famous by the poetic realism of pre-war. Big part of the belonging films to the tradition of quality stylistically, resembles to the romantic plays of series To products to Hollywood and in Great Britain as Arch of triumph of Lewis Milestone, (1948) or Brief meeting of David Lean, (1945).  Among the other famous couples of the tradition of quality it is that composed by the scriptwriter Charles Spaak, and from Andre Cayatte, Justice and sort (1950) and We are all assassins, (1952). The greatest part of the directors of the tradition of quality they were young that you/they had started their career after the advent of the sonorous one, usually under the occupation.

 

 

The Cinema of the Postwar period in Japan

 

 

From the second world war Japan was in knee: the principal cities had been destroyed from the American bombardments and the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki you/they had provoked death and sufferings unprecedented. Japan surrendered him, August 15 th 1945, its losses counted at least 8 million soldiers and over 600.000 civilians. American strengths had occupied the Country directing him/it on the fidelity of the west. During the war, the industry of the cinema had settled in in three principal societies: Shochiku, Toho and Daiei. Under the occupation it grew in considerable way the independent production, but the three societies checked distribution and exercise. In 1950, also gone out in the open the Toei (Oriental Cinema Society) that would be become in 1956 the most profitable society of the industry. The postwar period saw the rapids resumption and expansion of the industry: to halves the fifties 19 million weekly spectators could be counted, around the destination of those of the United States and five times those of France. Overall the decade saw a prosperity unprecedented, bringing the production to graze the 500 films in the I960. This success you allow the industry to invest in the procedure Fujicolor (appeared for the first time in Carmen it comes home, (Karumen Kokyo ni Kaeru) of Keisuke Kinoshita, (1951). The Japanese cinema begins to make to also be noticed on the international scene and Maichi Nagata head of the Daiei it begins to focus on the foreign markets. The turn happened with Rashomon of Akira Kurosawa, (1950) that the gold Leo won to the Show of the 1951 Venice Cinema and the Oscar for for the good foreign film. Nagata I begin to produce film of quality and proper for the exports: film Daiei as The stories of the pale moon of August" of Kenji Mizoguchi, (1953), The superintendent Sansho of Kenji Mizoguchi, (1954), The door of the hell, of Teinosuke Kinugasa, (1954) they won prizes to the festivals and they increased the interest of the western public for the Japanese cinema. Forbidden during the occupation, the historical (jidai-geki) films immediately reappeared after the departure of the Americans in 1952, the kind renewed him with more prestigious jidai-geki as The seven samurais, of Akira Kurosawa, (1954). The directors that were imposed in the years Winds and Thirty maintained in the postwar period a central role: continuous Kinugasa for instance to be for his/her jidai-gekis of quality. Less notes are the works of Hiroshi Shimizu, that to produce excellent films on the infancy: The children of the beehive, (1948) it employs actors not professionals and real environments to face the problem of the orphans of war. Shimizu founds an orphanage and in the following films it uses as many actors of his/her small guests.   In these dark melodramas ambientati in districts workers, the characters are victims of illnesses, debts and jealousies. Hideko Takamine, one of the best actresses of the postwar period, cover often you the role of the suffering heroin. Less depressing they are the films turned in the postwar period by Heinosuke Gosho that it moderates the shomin-geki with a lyricism just mentioned. The two more important teachers of the postwar period were still Kenji Mizoguchi and Yasujiro Ozu. In the first films of the postwar period, Mizoguchi keeps on placing the characters to notable distance from the taking car, a solution brought to the extreme in the decentralized shots and in long field of actress Sumako's love (1957). In the most intimate scenes Mizoguchi has the tendency to slightly take back from the tall one, choosing the grandangolo to hold in depth the characters, often framed by doors and walls. Mizoguchi insists besides with shots of length out of the commune: the middle duration and between the forty and the fifty seconds, but some last whole minutes. Unlike Ophuls or of Antonioni, Mizoguchi almost never resorts to the movement of car, creating so an enormous dramatic impact: when of it the victory of the women the self-acknowledged mother to have killed his/her child, Mizoguchi plans the action in a frontal scene where the gradual movement and often interrupted of his/her/their mother and of his/her lawyer toward the taking car it produces an increasing tension.  The central themes are usually crisis family marriage, separation and death: in Late spring (1949) an exemplary daughter must face you/he/she needs her/it to abandon his/her father widower; in Beginning in summer, (1951) different generations of a family are shaken from the impulsive decision of a daughter, to get married; I travel to Tokyo (1953), in Flowers of equinox (1958) it tells the visit of a couple of elderly to their children. 

 

The Cinema in the Chinese Popular Republic

 

After the surrender of Japan in 1945 the struggle again exploded: despite the American support, the strengths of Chia Kaishek owed leave Taiwan in 1959 the communist ones under Mao Tse-Tung they founded on the continent the Chinese Popular Republic. During the civil war, the continuous cinema production to have base to Shanghai. Many scriptwriters and directors sympathized with the revolutionary cause and not they rarely met him with the rigorous censorship of the time of war, even if some films offered models for the post-revolutionary cinema: the more main point than these was The river in the Spring it flows toward east, (1947), a film in two parts of Cai Chusheng and Cheng Chun-li, others two important films of this epoch were Crows and sparrows (1949) of Cheng Chun-li and St. Mao, the small vagabond, (1949). In 1949 the Film Study in Peking was founded and as head was select Yuan Muzhi, that had realized Angels of the road in 1937.

The new Office of the culture creates the office for the Cinema. Between 1949 and 1950 they were formulated plain for the production, the censorship, the distribution and the exercise; the popular films coming from the west were gradually eliminated, since the Chinese production all it took is for satisfying the question, films were imported from USSR and from other communist Countries. Despite the propagandist value of the films, the bureaucrats of the cinematography had a serious problem: China was a predominantly agricultural Pese, with him 80% of the situated population in the rural zones and in 1949 the Nation had only 650 rooms assembled in the port cities and you destines to a cultured public and of middle class. Million of Chinese had never seen a film and they were not able to assimilate the ideas communicated by the Soviet films. After the 1917 revolution, the Chinese government he hocks to extend the net of the rooms and to realize appreciable film from farmers, workers and soldiers: immediately after the revolution cinemas itinerantis were born for bringing the films in the most distant regions. In 1960 they reached the figure of around 15.000 cinema rooms, as that the new spectators were conquered by the cinema, it enormously also grew the number of the sold tickets, from the 1949 47 million to the 4,5 million of the 1959. New technicians were formed at first in a school connected to the Films Study in Peking and following the Cinema Academy in Peking. Some films of the period that the punishment is worth to remember are her my life, (1950), the I sacrifice some new year (1956) and The player of basketball (1957).

 

 

The Nouvelle Vague

 

 

In France of the last years '50 the idealism and the political movements of the first postwar period changed in an almost apolitical culture of the consumption and the fun. The new generation destined to occupy soon the places of power in France Nouvelle Vague was baptized, and it was to a large extent composed from avid readers of magazines of cinema and frequenters of cineclub and Cinema Of  D'essai: a public, ready for film less lined up of those of the cinema of quality. The cinema industry had not discovered the new market yet, but in 1958 the flow in the rooms begins to decline and many films were resolved in expensive straw-covered bottle. The government support encouraged the risk: in 1953 The Centre National du Cinema had introduced a prize of quality that allowed new directors to realize short films; a 1959 law relaunches with the system of the advance sur recettes (I anticipate on the receipts), that financed the first works on the base of the screen-play. Between 1958 and 1961 they began so in the film directors' dozens. Such a showy development naturally included very different tendencies, but the two principals are those that are identified with the group of the Nouvelle Vague on one side and from the other with those of the Shores Gauche, authors of a little more elderly than only they now leaned out on the world of the cinema. You owes to a large extent to the Nouvelle Vague the romantic image of the young director that fights for challenging with a personal cinema the conventions of the industry. It often turned him without sonorous and he provided following the doppiaggio; for three years, varied works of the kind produced notable earningses bringing Jean-Paul Belmondo, Jean-Claude Brialy, Ann Karina, Jeanne Moreau and other stars that would have dominated for decades the French cinema to the fame. As points out the same term of Nouvelle Vague (new wave). Incentrato on the urban professional life among fashions, chic, sporting auto, cafe, party nighttime and local jazz, the cinema of the Nouvelle Vague proposed the environment of the coffees as if you/he/she was captured with the immediateness of the direct cinema. The authors of the Nouvelle Vague share principles of base structuring the plots on casual events and detours, intensifying the tendency to the open ends: the famous final de The four hundred hits. More decidedly stylized they are the films of Jacques Demy, whose career takes off with Lola woman of life (1961), devoted to Max Ophuls.

 

 

Spaghetti Western

 

 

Among the years 50 and 60 the industry of the Italian cinema was under very best conditions of that French, the American importations decreased and the Italian films were conquered a big slice of the domestic collections; the international market meanwhile it revealed him accessible to film, as I Divorce to the Italian of Pietro Germi (1961), The strain of Ercole of Pietro Francisci, (1957), is America that the other European Nations participated with enthusiasm in Co-productions with Italy: while Cinecittà sfornava a film after the other, in the 1962 Dino De Laurentis he/she builds to the doors in Rome a great complex of theaters of laying. The more directors in sight were Fellini and Antonioni, but the expansion of the industry favors the debut of new directors: the influence of the tradition neoralist was often rather marked. The most definite updating of the neoralism happens in the work of Ermanno Olmi: from the first scene - that of a youth that he wakes up while his/her parents prepare the breakfast in the film The place (1961) hands before the patient observation of the daily life of Umberto D. The more believers to the tradition were perhaps his/her brothers Paul and Vittorio Taviani, that would have reached the international fame in the seventies, help of Viscounts in You earth trembles, Francis Rosi realizes a film documentary Salvatore Giuliano (1961) on the bandit's death with a series of flashback in non chronological order.  The impulse neoralist also finds a development in form of radical modernism in the work of Pier Paul Pasolini, that lifts a dust cloud in the Italian culture passing to the cinema after having already reached the popularity as poet and novelist and possession collaborated to different screen-plays, and particularly to that of Her nights of Cabiria of Fellini, Beggar (1961), mother Rome (1962), analysis of the urban poverty, was greeted as a return to the neoralism. The first films of Pasolini propose a horde of atmospheres and disparate images: in compositions that you/they remember the Renaissance paintings, the characters pronounce vulgar words; scenes turned for road to the way of the cinema-veritè. The tactic of the stylistic contamination was less hard perhaps to be digested its Gospel according to Matteo (1964). The biblical subject was introduced with great realism of the epic films of Hollywood or Cinecittà: Pasolini makes of Jesus an impatient preacher and delays on the twisted lines, the wrinkled skin and the broken teeth of his/her characters. The Gospel according to Matteo, however, not and only a version neoralist of the Bible: the styles mix him, with Bach and Prokof'ev that in the sonorous column they compete with the African Missa Luba. In 1963-64 the films in custom passed of fashion and the houses of production they suffered particularly expensive failures The Leopard (1963) of Luchino Visconti and Sodoma and Gomorra (1963) of Robert Aldrich. In 1965 the State intervened offering helps analogous to those French: prizes for projects of quality, mutual guaranteed and credits drawn by special funds. While this politics provoked a new boom, the industry launches lower part productions budget that explored new sons-in-law as the eroticism and the imitations of James Bond; Mario Bava reinventa the fantastic thriller with unpublished erotic tones, scenographies Baroque and eccentric movements of car, but the Italian kind of great international success was that then defined in the countries English-speaking Spaghetti Western, whose exponent of great I detach and Sergio Leone. Lover of the comic strips and the American noirs, Leo was an impassioned cinefilo, you/he/she had worked as I help director for his/her father Roberto Roberti pseudonym of Vincent Leone for De Sica in Thievish of bicycles and for different American directors that made movie in Italy. After having directed two epic films in custom, Leo passes to the kind with which the producers hoped for ristabilizzare the industry, For a fist of dollars (1964), For some dollar in more (1965), the good one, the ugly one and the bad one (1966) remained prototypes of the western to the Italian. The western of Leo are to the insignia of a raw realism unhealthy city, filthy and a more ferocious violence than the spectators had ever seen but among their characteristics there and also an almost opera shine: boundless (I taken back to low cost in Spain) landscapes alternate him to panoramic details of eyes or hands; the grandangolo distorts the depth and the garish style of Leo it pushes the conventions of the western to the level of pure ceremony, these overloaded scenes they are often rendered less dramatic with irony and humor black. Also the sonorous columns of Ennio Morricone confer to the action a heroic affiato, for instance using a flight of arcs, but they are ready to tease him of it with a whistle or a sudden sound effect; the music also contributed to amplify the thematic knots of the film, as at the end of For some dollar in more.

 

Cinema and Kung it was

 

 

After 1970, when its production stabilizes him around the 120 titles a year, the cinema in Hong Kong it became one of the most important of the sonorous era. The industry in Hong Kong was developed in the years 50 with family melodramas, cinema versions of the work cantonese and film of martial arts. These sons-in-law continued for the whole following decade, above all under the aegis of the greatest company of the colony, the Shaw Brothers. In 1958, the tireless entrepreneur Run Run Shaw builds Movietown, a grandiose working film studio ventiquattr'ore on twenty-four. Although the middle budget of their films was alone of 100.000 dollars, his/her brothers Shaws dominated the market in Hong Kong. During the years 60 Run Run Shaw was the first one to renew the films on the martial arts. Initially this kind was inspired to the philosophy of Confucio; the directors of Shaw, emphasized instead the action and the acrobatic aspect of it. Inspiring himself/herself/itself to the stunts of the work in Peking, to the films on the Japanese samurais, to the western to the Italian and even to the films of James Bond, the film of martial arts in Hong Kong became a fascinating show. Zhang Che, the most famous director of this kind, realization film of great success as The assassin (1967), The gilded swallow (1968) and The wandering swordsman (1970), in the following decade also his/her assistants and preliminary they became famous directors. More innovative and largely known it was King Hu, whose you Come to drink with me (1965) it marks the beginning of a new wave of film on the martial arts. Almost entirely turned in an inn, the film founds its action on you entangle, disguises and brawls among the clients. His/her fast assemblage, the overwhelming compositions on panoramic screen and the stunts on the model of the Chinese work characterized the kind for decades.     In his/her following films, the actors are launched with agility on the rocks, they bounce on the walls and on the trunks of tree and they fall from the sky. Important character of the Chinese cinema is Bruce Lee, you/he/she had worked for the cinema and the American television, interpreting smaller roles as The fury of China still strikes, (1971), produced by the Golden Harvest, film that conquers the celebrity with the kung was, the art to give fists and kicks, becomes all over the world a fashion. Chow contributes to make even more famous Lee with From China with fury (1972) and The cry of Chen also terrorizes the west (1972), both films beat every record of collection to Hong Kong.