The movement developed around a circle of film critics that revolved around the magazine Cinema, including Michelangelo Antonioni, Luchino Visconti, Gianni Puccini, Giuseppe De Santis and Pietro Ingrao. Director of the magazine was Vittorio Mussolini, son of Benito Mussolini (Il Duce), critics attacked the movie ascribed to the genus of the white telephones, which at the time dominated the Italian cinema industry. The French were influenced by neo-realist realism. Michelangelo Antonioni that Luchino Visconti worked closely with Jean Renoir. Also many directors were earned working on film calligrafisti, although this brief movement was noticeably different from neorealism.
According to some critics, the two most significant feature films that anticipated neorealism were Toni (Renoir) and 1860 (Bal), was followed by other films like four steps in the clouds and the fascist trilogy by Roberto Rossellini, consisting of the white ship, a pilot returns, the man on the cross. Neorealism acquired worldwide exposure with film Rome, open city, first major postwar movies. The film narrates, with strongly dramatic accents, the moral struggle of Italians against the German occupation of Rome, by consciously can to resist it. Children are observers of reality and they are the keys to the future. Other important film of that time was I bambini ci guardano by Vittorio De Sica, film made in collaboration with Cesare Zavattini, followed by the bicycle thief, Miracle in Milan and Umberto D. At the height of neorealism, in 1948, Luchino Visconti adapted the novel I Malavogliaby Giovanni Verga wrote at the height of realism, the movement of the 19th century that was in many ways the Foundation of neo-realism, Luchino Visconti talking he renovated thesubject, and backed out the film La Terra Trema movies starring amateur actors and also film shot in Sicilian language was subtitled in Italian version. Neorealism ceases to exist in the late 1950s. The legacy of neorealism was collected during the years 80 even by Claudio Caligari in Swansea love story of 1983 and Nico D'alessandria talking the Emperor of Rome of 1987.
Both directors made movies about drug addiction in the context of Roman using non-professional actors, people who were drug addicts during processing of the film or that it had been. Various aspects of neorealism are movies impellers with non-professional actors and the scenes are mostly filmed in exterior mostly mostly in the suburbs and countryside and the subject is a worker and destitute, impoverished from the war. Neo-realist films were contemporary stories inspired by real events and often told the story recently as Roma Città Aperta by Roberto Rossellini. This movie is the epic of Endurance, put into practice thanks to the Alliance between Communists and Catholics at the side of the population. However, attention was paid to contemporary social issues, among these emerging bicycle thieves of Vittorio De Sica, in the film is narrated the drama of a worker, in the narrative he represents the harshness of life in post-war period. The complaint of social unrest is even stronger in the film bitter rice by Giuseppe De Santis and Visconti's La terra trema .However the image of Italy, a country poor, desolate, which transpired from these annoyed him a certain political class. In this regard is emblematic of Vittorio Mussolini who, after seeing Obsession of Visconti, was out of the room screaming This is not Italy!.
The Catholic Church condemned many movies for anticlericalism and to how they treat topics like sex, while the left did not accept the pessimistic view and the lack of an explicit statement of political faith. In 1949, a law was enacted by then Undersecretary to the show Giulio Andreotti, who was to support and promote the growth of Italian cinema and at the same time curb the advance of American movies, but also the embarassing excesses of neorealism. As a result of this rule before you can receive public funding, the script had to be approved by a State Commission. Also if it was believed that a movie diffamava the Italy could be denied an export permit.
Major works of neo-realism
1930/ Gente in Aspromonte by Corrado Alvaro
1933 / Fontamara novel by Ignazio Silone
1947 / the novel Christ stopped at Eboli Carlo Levi
1934/ 1860, Alessandro Blasetti
1935 / Toni, by Jean Renoir
1941/ La nave bianca
1941/ Un pilota ritorna
1943/ L'UOMO dalla croce
1941/ Male on the bottom and Alpha Tau, by Francesco De Robertis
1942/ Quattro passi fra le nuvole, directed by Alessandro Blasetti
1942/ Next place, by Mario Bonnard
1943/ Campo de ' fioriby Mario Bonnard
1943/ I bambini ci guardano, by Vittorio De Sica
1943/the last wagon, by Mario Mattoli
1945/ O sole mio, finalmente
The Earth trembles
Rome, open city
Germany year Zero
Trip to Italy
The bicycle thief
Miracle in Milan
No peace among the olive trees
Roma ore 11
Uomini e lupi
In the name of the law
Path of hope
The railroad man
Sotto il sole di Roma
Two cents worth of hope
Processo alla città
Chronicle of poor lovers
Ghosts of the sea
Gli amanti di Ravello or Fenesta
I sette dell'orsa Maggiore
MIZAR (Sabotage at sea)
Carlo Lizzani, Italian cinema. From its origins in the 1980s, Roma, Editori Riuniti, Second Edition 1982
Lino Miccichè, neorealism, film Encyclopedia, Vol. IV, Istituto dell'enciclopedia Italiana Treccani.
1 calligrafisti/elaborate style
The elaborate style (o cinema calligraphers is) a cinematic trend on certain films made in Italy in the first half of the 1940s, having in common a expressive complexity and multitudinous figurative references, literary and cinematographic They isolate themselves from the dominant cinematic context in recent years of fascism.Among the directors due to this trend include Mario Soldati, Luigi Chiarini, Renato Castellani and Alberto Lattuada. The result is a cinema formally complex, capable of evoking numerous cultural trends and, at the same time, to bring them into line in an expressive form accomplished through formal attention, the revaluation of the craft of cinema, debased in period of the white telephones. Many experienced technicians will work in these films, including operators, Massimo Terzano, Ubaldo Arata and Carlo Montuori and set designers Virgilio Marchi, Gino Carlo Sahar and Antonio Valente. The major nineteenth-century fiction are literary references, mostly Italian (by Antonio Fogazzaro to Emilio De Marchi). For the realization of the film work writers as Corrado Alvaro, Arnold Lobel, Emilio Cecchi, Francesco Pasinetti, Vitaliano Brancati, Mario Umberto Barbaro, Ballinger. The elaborate style harks back to the macchiaioli in Tuscany, the pre-raphaelites and Symbolist. In this sense is dominant the influence of contemporary French cinema in particular of poetic realism and of the work of Jean Renoir, Marcel Carne and Julien Duvivier, but also the US and German. Unlike the French poetic realism and Italian neo-realism, the films of this brief trend does not have vocation realist or social engagement. The main interest remains the formal care and richness of cultural reference enclosed in a cinema that can enhance the professionalism of each component. The criticism of the time stamped this trend as unrealistic and superficial coining specially the elaborate style expression.
The most famous exponent of the movement's long-time writer and Director Mario Soldati destined to prevail with a literary ancestry: film Dora Nelson, Piccolo mondo antico, Malombra, tragic night, Neighborhood high.His films, figuratively complexes, focus of history female characters with a dramatic and psychological force foreign to the film character of the white telephones. Luigi Chiarini, already active as a critic, deepens the tendency in his sleeping beauty, Via delle Cinque Lune, La Locandiera. The inner conflicts of the characters and scenic wealth are also recurring in the first film by Alberto Lattuada (Giacomo the idealist, 1942) and Renato Castellani ( a gunshot, 1942), dominated by a sense of moral and cultural decline that seems to anticipate the end of the war.
Quite unusual is the first film by Luchino Visconti, Obsession, that while presenting some typical elements of elaborate style (the literary source, references to nineteenth-century culture and the careful formal composition) radicalized self-destructive character tension and, above all, the importance of the setting, opening the way for the revolution of neo-realism. radicalized self-destructive character tension and, above all, the importance of the setting, opening the way for the revolution of neo-realism.