Italian cinema, beginning three months after the first public screening, which took place in the basement of a Café on Boulevard des Capucines, Paris, on 28 December 1895, the date for the beginning of the history of cinema. In 1896 the invention of the Cinematograph is spreading throughout France and in the rest of Europe.The first projector is installed in Rome by operators Auguste and Louis Lumière, 12 March 1896. Over time, many Italian films have won wide recognition awards. Within days the show will come in all major cities of the country. The first movie produced in Italy are documentaries lasting a few seconds devoted to Kings, emperors, popes, views of some cities. The first historical relevance is Vittorio Calcina, author of both documentary short films that films, the most famous shooting is visiting Monza of King Umberto I and Queen Margherita of Savoy, transfer to the Commission on behalf of the Lumière brothers, so as the oldest Italian documentary his Holiness Pope Leo XIII (1896). Soon other pioneers making their way, to shine is the Director and inventor Filoteo Alberini, perfecting a shot similar to that of light. Are also active Italo Pacchioni, Roberto Omengna, Arturo Ambrosio, Giuseppe Filippo e Giovanni Vitrotti. The success of these moving pictures is immediate, are sporting events, social events, road traffic, the arrival of a train, visits of famous people, but also disasters and natural disasters. Despite initial differences, within two years the cinema society's hierarchies scale intriguing wealthier classes. On 28 January 1897 the principles Vittorio Emanuele and Elena Montenegro attend a screening organized by Vittorio Calcina, in a room of Palazzo Pitti in Florence, I decided to experiment with the new medium, they will resume, the Prince of Naples and Princess Elena while visiting the baptistery of San Giovanni in Florence marry principles to the Pantheon in Rome. In the 20th century spread throughout Italy the phenomenon of street vendors who provide literacy of the Visual medium. Italian cinema is still tied to traditional commedia dell'arte performances or their circus folk. The public screenings take place in cafes or in variety theatres in the presence of a Barker who is tasked to promote and enrich the story. Between 1903 and 1909 cinema is considered a freak. Hundreds of companies are born throughout the country: Cines, Milano Film, Itala Film, Caesar Movies, Società Anonima Ambrosio, Partenope Film, Pai Film, Rome Movie. At the same time arranges itself in urban areas increasingly widespread network of cinemas Cinema Lumière of Pisa begins the projections already in 1899. This transformation leads to the production of feature films, which for much of the period muto flanked by the documentary up to replace it almost completely at the beginning of World War I. The discovery of the potential of the cinematic medium fosters the development of a cinema of great ambitions, able to incorporate all the cultural and historical influences in the country. Education is an inexhaustible source of ideas and easily assimilated by popular public. Dozens of characters encountered on textbooks make their debut on the big screen: the count of Monte Cristo, Giordano Bruno, Judith and Holofernes, Francesca da Rimini, Lorenzo de ' Medici, Rigoletto, Il Conte Ugolino. In 1905 the Cines inaugurates the genre of historical film, which will give a large fortune to many Italian filmmakers. The first feature film, entitled La presa di Roma (1905), Filoteo Alberini, is a historical reconstruction of the breach of Porta Pia. In the three years preceding the first world war production are exported worldwide mythological films, comedy and drama. Was born the phenomenon of stardom for a few years will know that an unprecedented success, at the end of the Decade Rome stands permanently as main production centre. The Blockbuster of Italy Giolittiana celebrating the big screen events of antiquity, with its aspirations of international power. Even before the event of fascism, these movies evoke the triumphs of ancient Roman Empires, whose cultural lineage is claimed with pride. The conquest of Libya marks the final approach between the nationalist milieu of these movies and the imperialist policy.
The archetype of the strand is the Nero (1909) by Luigi Maggi and Arrigo Frusta, the film is inspired by the work of Pietro Cossa that harks iconographically at etchings by Bartolomeo Pinelli, to neoclassicism and the show Black or the Destruction of Rome, represented by Barnum. Follow Marin Faliero, Doge of Venice (1909) by Giuseppe De Liguoro, Otello (1909) by Yambo and Odyssey (1911) by Bertolini, Padovan and Daka. Hell (1911) an adaptation of Dante's cellar, is a cinematic translation of the engravings of Gustave Doré experiencing integration between optical effects and scenic actions, while the last days of Pompei (1913) by Mario Caseriniuses innovative special effects. The first Director to take full advantage of this huge apparatus spectacular is Enrico Guazzoni already painter and stage designer in his Quo Vadis? (1912) the characters and scenic space create unpublished reports, enhancing the dialectic between individual and mass that will be the focus of future film history. The story remains in the background, while in the foreground are troubling personal dramas arising from melodrama. The international success of the film marks the maturity of the genre and allows Guazzoni to realize more and more spectacular movie, as Caius Julius Caesar (1913), and Marcatonio and Cleopatra (1913). After Guazzoni are Emilio Ghione, Febo Mari, Carmine Gallone, Giulio Antamoro and many others who contributed to the expansion of the genre. Giovanni Pastrone's Director more interested looking for spectacular solutions never seen before. Already in the fall of Troy (1911) experience perspective, but the original buildings famous Cabiria (1914) that his filmography and the whole genre reached its peak.Conceived as an authentic movie-event (also thanks to the collaboration of Gabriele D'Annunzio), the film hits the audience for his ambition: technical innovations (including the use of trolleys and the foreground), the complexity of the plot, meaningful use makeup, lighting and scenic opulence contribute to his reputation as a work of art, capable of overcoming the limitations of the film medium. In the coming years, films like Intollerance (1916) by David w. Giffith or Metropolis (1927) by Fritz Lang. After the huge success of Cabiria, with the changing tastes of the public and the first signs of the industrial crisis, the genre is starting to show signs of fatigue. The draft Pastrone to adapt the Bible with thousands of extras remains unfulfilled. The Christus Antamoro (1916) and La Gerusalemme Liberata (1918) by Guazzoni remain notable for iconographic complexity but do not offer substantial innovations. Despite sporadic attempts to latch on to the grandeur of the past, the same exploration of historical Blockbuster runs out at the beginning of the 20. Between 1913 and 1920 we witness the rise, development and decline of the phenomenon of film stardom , born with but my love will never die (1931) by Mario Caserini. The film was a huge commercial success and encoding setting and aesthetics of female stardom. The recitation of Lyda Borelli exerts a great influence throughout the Decade and helps to renew the imaginary romantic with melodramatic, decadent and symbolistic influences.Francesca Bertini after Lyda Borelli, the second great Italian movie star. With more versatility than the contemporary divas, switch to comedy to drama of passion in various social roles and communicating effectively with a wide range of feelings. In Assunta Spina (1915) by Gustavo Serena turns away from influences liberty to approach a more naturalistic acting that fosters their expressive force. Within a few years they also claim Eleonora Duse, Pina Menichelli, Rina De Liguoro, Leda Gys, Vittoria Lepanto and Italy Almirante Manzini. Films like Fior di Male (1914), by Carmine Gallone, fire (1915), by Giovanni Pastrone, Rapsodia satanica (1917) by Nino Oxilia and Ashes (1917) by Febo Mari arrive in change the national costume, imposing standards of beauty, behavior patterns and objects of desire. Despite the diversity of the interpreters of the film, the female model emerges from the cinema of this period is substantially referable to model melodramatic, although tainted by the decadence of proclaiming and theories of Lombroso: "now innocent and as well, delirious and now prey to dèreglement de tous les sens "now mothers sweet being denied maternity leave, women now able to love over death itself. Only in the twenties, with the downturn in production and the decline of the dive, you can the emergence of a more realistic female figure without a divine aura and more accessible to the Viewer. Despite the success in the first decade of the century, the mute have never become a kind of comic relief for the Italian cinema. The relevant section of this production, which has hundreds of movies (almost all short films), is the ability to assimilate various forms of popular entertainment, from theatre to vaudeville. Built around slender plots or simple humorous supporting ideas to the extreme, these short films serve as a simple accompaniment to more ambitious films. The most successful comedian in Italy is André Deed, better known as Cretinetti, who stars in numerous courts for Itala Film. Its success paved the way by Marcel Fabre, Ernesto Vaser and many others. The only actor of a certain substance is Polidor, who became famous as Polidor. The historical interest of these films lies in their ability to detect the aspirations and fears of a middle-class society divided between wanting to claim and the uncertainties of the present. It is significant that the protagonists of Italian comics have never in open conflict with the company nor embody social desires of revenge (as is the case for example with Chaplin), but rather seek to integrate into a world greatly desired.
The Futurist avant-garde has effects on the cinema of the period, with his interest in the rapidity and violence of expression, Futurism is in cinema an art young, less compromised with rhetoric traditionalist and especially open to future technological developments. In the Manifesto of the Futurist Filippo Tommaso Marinetti cinematography, Bruno Corra, Emilio Settimelli, Arnaldo Ginna and Giacomo Balla describe cinema as an art able to synthesize all the experimental tendencies of the time. In doing so they claim the use of dramas of objects, symphonies of lines and colours and games of proportions to overcome the limitations of 19th-century naturalism. The cinema wishing you mskin, Impressionist, synthetic, dynamic. Beyond the Declaration of intent, Futurism fail to adopt new means of expression, neither will it be able to leave a lasting mark in its evolution. Quite the contrary: it will be opera's influence on cinema to influence the artistic production of the movement, with the Assembly of many different materials, close up, detail, eccentric image cutting, the use of captions, deadlifts and fades . Movies related to movement are very few. Besides those abstract paintings on film by Bruno Corra and Arnaldo Ginna, lost, the most significant works are only two:
Vita futurista (1916), Arnaldo Ginna, a kind of practical verification of the theses presented in the Manifesto: ironic and intentional provocative, the film uses numerous special effects (hand-colored, toning, shots, quirky, to stimulate emotional reactions of the Viewer.
Thais by Anton Giulio Bragaglia, film, built around a melodramatic and decaying, actually many different artistic influences from Futurism; liberty furniture sets and breakaway, abstract, surreal and help to create a strong syncretism.
The great depression and the arrival of talkies (1920-1930)
With the end of the great war the Italian cinema is going through a period of crisis due to many factors: production cost increases, technological backwardness disorganization loss of foreign markets and inability to cope with international competition, particularly that of Hollywood. One of the main causes is the lack of a generational change with production still dominated by authors and writers of literary and theatrical education, unable to cope with the challenges of modernity. The first half of the 1920s marked a stark production by 350 reflux films produced in 1921 you pass to 60 of 1924. Literature and theater are still privileged narrative sources. Resist professional dramas, mostly taken from classical texts or popular and conducted by specialists such as Roberto Roberti, by Giulio Antamoro. On the basis of the latest generation of divas, spreads a sentimental female cinema focused on figures on the fringes of society who, instead of struggling to emancipate themselves (as happens in Hollywood movies), through a genuine ordeal in order to preserve their virtue. Is a strongly conservative social rules, tied to cinema shaken by war and dissolution across Europe. A case in point is the story of a woman (1920) by Eugenio Perego, which uses a narrative construction melodramatic tones to propose a nineteenth-century original moral. A particular strand is to Neapolitan setting, through the work of Italian cinema's first female Director, Elvira Notari, who directs many films influenced by the popular theatre and traits from popular drama, Neapolitan songs, novels, an appendix or inspired by news events. The Italian production of this period is marginal and the market is dominated by Hollywood films. The only manufacturer able to adapt to the situation is Stefano Pittalunga, intended to almost absolute control over Italian films until the 1930s. Among the directors able to compete with European products are Lucio d'Ambra, Carmine Gallone and Augusto Genina. Creator pays attention to the tastes of the public, Genina is dedicated to comedy, melodrama and adventure films, getting big hits at the box office. For the 1930s will be one of the directors of fascist cinema, you will have to wait until the end of the Decade to find films of greater breath. During this time, a group of intellectuals to Cinema magazine and led by Alessandro Blasetti launches a program as simple as it is ambitious. Aware of the Italian cultural backwardness, they decide to break all links with the previous tradition through a rediscovery of the rural world, until then virtually absent in Italian cinema.
Sun (1929) by Alessandro Blasetti shows the obvious influence of Soviet and German avant-garde in an attempt to renew the Italian cinema in accord with the interests of the fascist regime.
Rails (1930) by Mario Camerini blends the traditional kind of comedy with Kammerspiel and movie realist, noting the Director's skill in hatch middle class characters.
While not comparable to the higher results of international cinema of the period, the works of Alexander Blassetti and Mario Camerini testify to a generational shift among the directors and Italian intellectuals, and especially an emancipation from literary models and a rapprochement to the tastes of the public. Once reorganized industry, the fruits of this revival will soon be put to the service of the fascist regime. Initial skepticism towards the sound film involves producers and filmmakers to many countries, opposed from the start to grapple with the new invention. This concept breaks the rules of film grammar and is seen as a threat for international distribution. The sound arrives in Italy in 1930, three years after the release of the Jazz's cantatas (1927), and immediately leads to a debate about the validity of cinema spoke and his relationship with the theater. Some filmmakers face the new challenge with enthusiasm. The first Italian sound film is La canzone dell'Amore (1930) by Gennaro Righelli. Also the use of sound experiences in Alessandro Blasetti Resurrectio (1930), filmed before the Song of love but distributed some months later. Similar to the movie of the rulers is the men that rascals ... 1932 Mario Camerini, which has the merit of Vittorio De Sica's debut on the screens.
With the transition to sound most of the actors of the silent era, still attached to the theatrical stylization, finds himself disqualified. The era of the stars and rough, barely survived the 1920s, is permanently ended.Although some performers will move to directing or production, the arrival of fosters ongoing generational change and modernization of facilities.
Fascist Cinema (1922-1945)
Aware of the importance of cinema in the management of social consensus, the fascist regime cares right away to revive a declining cinematography. In 1924, the Union is founded Educational Film Light, a State-controlled production and distribution company. At the same time it established the Ministry of popular culture that, through significant contributions in bottom lost (regular by law of 1931 918), finance directly the entertainment industry. Among the biggest beneficiaries is the production company Cines – Pittalunga, who in 1925 builds new Studios on the outskirts of Rome. Despite the increase of investment derived from this Director, technological and cultural backwardness condemnation at the margins the last silent film period. In the first year of life of the Chinese will be produced in Italy only 12 movies, up from 350 major from abroad. By the end of the Decade, the regime becomes main sponsor of the film industry. From now until the outbreak of war, the growth of production will remain constant.
In 1934 it established the General Directorate for cinematography led by Luigi Freddi, which actually checks for the Italian and foreign film production (not without appropriate monitoring and censorship cuts) until the fall of the regime. The same year the Entertainment Corporation is created, where all major manufacturers and distributors in the country. During this period, in addition to other production companies are Chinese, including the Lux films, specializing in religious films and literary adaptations, and the Novella Film by Angelo Rizzoli. Among the most active producers include Gustavo Lombardo (President of Titanus), Giovacchino Forzano, and brothers Scalera. All manufacturers and distributors receive funds from the State, which has also its own chain of salt, the Enic. In 1935 it established the Centro Sperimentale di Cinematografia, intended to become the main training of Italian cinema. In the same year Cines settlements are destroyed by in fire. From the ashes of the old industrial site is located in 1937 Cinecittà, one of Europe's largest complexes inaugurated in open defiance of Hollywood studios. In 1940 the settlements are statist and well soon become the productive heart of the film industry, bringing half the production to shoot in his stages. Since that time Rome became the undisputed capital of Italian cinema, Cinecittà and the experimental Center intended to exercise for about half a century a Dominion in skills training and production. Until the end of 1938 fascist does not object to the importation of foreign films (think that the 73% of the income of the year goes to Hollywood movies), but with the strengthening of production and the increasing role of the State in the production are protectionist measures aimed at restricting imports. The law Alfieri of 6 June 1938 blocks the circulation of foreign films, boosting domestic production. In 1939 are made 50 films, which will become 119 in 1942; at the same time, the domestic market share of 13% to 50% Italian movies passes by. Even war is able to stop this production of euphoria, which will last until 1943. Until its collapse, the scheme will impose without opposition a cinema structured coded genres. The cinema of fascism will not be the preferred vehicle of propaganda (a task done much more persuasively by Newsreels light), but it will help to form the idea of society that fascism wants to impose: a peaceful society, free of internal strife, capable of productive outbursts but untouched by the evils from modernity. This commemorative intent also helps a new generation of actors, mostly from the theatre.Vittorio De Sica embodies a common Manhood and this capable of capturing the attention of the public;alongside him recite Assia Noris, Isa Paola, Gino Cervi, Gianfranco Giachetti, Carlo Ninchi, Roldano Lupi, Rossano Brazzi, Elio Steiner and Isa Miranda. All these factors represent a happy trying to revive a divinismo of international stature. During the 1930s and 1940s, similarly, interpreters as Amedeo Nazzari, Fosco Giachetti, Joel Garcia, Leonardo Cortese and Raf Vallone will continue to embody the Italian virility, divided between national pride and progressive approaches to reality; as well as Antonio Centa, Osvaldo Valenti, Massimo Serato and Guido Celano. female side Alida Valli, Dria Paola, Clara Calamai, Doris Duranti, Dina Sabharwal, Valentina Cortese, Luisa Ferida, Marina Berti, and Elsa De Giorgi lead on screen a beauty common female away from stylized charm of the stars of the silent era. During the same period he made his debut a young Anna Magnani. Far from any form of stardom, will be starting from the postwar period, one of the most important interpreters of all Italian cinema. A special mention deserve some factors from the variety and capable of bringing to the cinema lucky comic masks: the case of Totò, Ettore Petrolini, Gilberto Govi, the brothers De Filippo, Aldo Fabrizi, Macario.
Cinematic representations of the squads and the first fascist actions are rare. Old Guard (1934) by Alessandro Blasetti evokes the supposed spontaneity vitalistic of populist tones, but not blackshirts critically acclaimed official. Black shirt (1933) by Giovacchino Forzano, made for the tenth anniversary of the March on Rome, celebrates the achievements of the regime (the reclamation of the pontine marshes and construction of Littoria) alternating narrative sequences to documentaries. By consolidating political, governmental authority requires the industry to strengthen the regime's identification with the history and culture of the country. Hence the need to reread the Italian history in an authoritarian perspective, reducing teleologically every event passed to a prodomo della rivoluzione fascista, in continuity with the historiographical work of Gioacchino Volpe. After the first attempts in this direction, aimed mainly to highlight the alleged continuity between Renaissance and fascism Villafranca by Force, 1933, in 1860 Blasetti, 1933, the trend reaches its peak just before the war. Cavalry (1936) by Goffredo Alessandrini, evokes the nobility of Savoy fighters presenting the deeds as anticipations of squads. Leaders, (1937) by Luis Trenker, tells the story of Giovanni delle Bande Nere explicitly establishing a parallel with Benito Mussolini, while Scipio Africanus (1937) by Carmine Gallone, celebrates the Roman Empire and indirectly fascist. The invasion of Ethiopia gives directors the opportunity to extend the horizons of the locations. The big appeal (1936) by Mario Camerini enhances imperialism as a job opportunity and redemption, contrasting the heroism of the young soldiers to timidity. The anti-fascist polemic which accompanies the colonial enterprises is also evident in The Lo squadrone Bianco (1936) by Augusto Genina, combining propagandist rhetoric to significant battle sequences shot in the desert of Tripolitania. Most films in celebration of the Empire are mainly documentaries aimed to present the war as a struggle of civilization against barbarism. Spain's war is described in documentaries Los Novios de la muerte (1936) by Romolo Marcellini and Arriba Espana, Espana a, large libre! (1939) by Giorgio Ferroni, background of a dozen other films, including the most spectacular is the siege of Alcazar (1940) by Augusto Genina. With the entry into war, the fascist regime further strengthens the control over the production and stronger commitment in propaganda. In addition to the now-canonical documentaries, short films and newsreels, also increase companies ' worldwide feature film in praise of war. Among the most representative are Benghazi (1940) by Genina, Gente Dell'Aria (1942), Exodus Pratelli, the three pilots (1942), by Mario Mattoli onscreenplay by Vittorio Mussolini and Those of the mountain (1943) by Cino Betrone supervised by Bal.
A special mention deserves Men on the bottom (1941) by Francesco De Robertis, a remarkable film thanks to its almost documentary approach. The most successful film of the period is us alive – Goodbye Kira! (1942) by Goffredo Alessandrini. Due to the kind of drama anticommunist, this gloomy melodrama set in an unlikely Soviet Union is based on a novel by novelist Ayn Rand that exalts the most radical individualism. Among the directors who give their contribution to the war propaganda there is Roberto Rossellini, author of a trilogy consisting of the white ship (1941), Un pilota ritorna (1942) and L'UOMO dalla croce (1943). Anticipating in some ways his mature works, the Director adopts a style resigned and immediate, which does not contradict the effectiveness of propaganda but neither glorifies war rhetoric.
The cinema of the white telephones
The season of the white telephones covers a relatively short period of time, the mid-thirties to the fall of fascism. The reference white telephones (at that time was a sign of social welfare), indicates right away this movie characters that lead to rejection of any social problem, placing at centre stage slender sentimental comedies. Such comedies are a fleeting success during the years in which the failure of the promises of fascism is becoming more evident. Although the petty-bourgeois setting reveals the collective hopes and dreams of the Italian society, the pleasant character of the stories is in stark contrast to the dominant political and propaganda films in it. An alternative name of the genus is Cinema de Paris, to highlight the frequent references to trends and to the customs of the time. Its productions, in fact are overflowing with luxury homes, cars and fashionable furniture, worthy contour of sentimental stories of harmless Amedeo Nazzari and Alida Valli, Vittorio De Sica, Assia Noris. Such superficial cosmopolitanism is explainable for production needs: many movies are adaptations of mild European turn-of-the-century comedies that try to mask the frivolity of the content with the brilliance of style. The foreign setting of many stories (often in a central Europe indifferent to the tragedies of the continent), contributes to relegate this cinema in the pure military concerns and social hall leads away from. In addition, the cinema de Paris will turn out soon the tour debut of numerous screenwriters intended to establish itself in the following decades (including Cesare Zavattini and Sergio Amidei), and especially of several set designers like Guido Fiorini, Gino Sahar and Antonio Valentewhich, by virtue of successful inventions, will bring these productions to become a kind of summa of aesthetics small – borghese of the time. Among the authors, Mario Camerini is the Director of the genre, after practicing the many different strands in the 1930s moves happily into the territory of comedy with the men scoundrels (1932), Il Signor Max (1937), Department stores (1939), in which develops a lightness of touch that can enhance the stars of the era. In other movies is confronted with the comedy of Hollywood imprint on Frank Capra model Pounding, 1939, and with that surreal Renè Clair Darò un milione, 1935, Camerini is interested in the figure of Italian typical and popular, so anticipate some elements of future Italian comedy. Dressing rooms is interested in the figure of Italian typical and popular, much to anticipate some elements of the future Italian comedy. His interpreter major, Vittorio De Sica, I will continue the lesson in Maddalena, zero in condotta (1940) and Teresa Venerdì (1941), Jean de Limur in Appearance, (1944) and Max Neufeld The House of sin, (1938), a thousand lire a month, (1939).
The Elaborate Style
The film is an elaborate style trend on certain films made in Italy in the first half of the forties and with figurative and expressive complexity and multiple literary references that will isolate from the general context. The best-known exponent of this tendency is Mario Soldati, writer and Director of long course intended to impose itself with films of literary ancestry. His films down to the heart of the story female characters with a dramatic and psychological force alien to the cinema of the white telephones and can be found in works such as Dora Nelson (1939), Piccolo mondo antico (1941), Malombra (1942), tragic night (1942) and Uptown (1943). Luigi Chiarini, deepens the tendency in his sleeping beauty (1942),Via delle Cinque Lune (1942) and la Locandiera (1944). The inner conflicts of the characters and scenic wealth are also recurring in the first film by Alberto Lattuada Giacomo the idealist, (1942) and Renato Castellani a gunshot, (1942), dominated by a sense of moral and cultural decline that seems to anticipate the end of the war. The salient feature in this diverse corpus of movies is the desire to compete with European products stating the autonomy of cinema in relation to others. At the same time, it evokes the possibility to compare it to them through a style that can melt and contaminate the different expressive languages. The result is a cinema formally complex, capable of evoking numerous cultural trends and harmonised in an artistic form.Appreciates artisan of cinema, thus repeatedly debased by contemporary productions of the white telephones. The major nineteenth-century fiction are literary references, mostly Italian (by Antonio Fogazzaro to Emilio De Marchi), Russian and French. The films are collaborating writers such as Corrado Alvaro, Arnold Lobel, Emilio Cecchi, Francesco Pasinetti, Vitaliano Brancati, Mario Ballard and Umberto Barbaro. On the Visual side, the Calligrafismor refers to the macchiaioli in Tuscany. The films of this period have no vocation realist or social engagement. The main interest remains the formal care and richness of cultural references that are enclosed in a cinema that can enhance. The main interest remains the formal care and richness of cultural references that are enclosed in a cinema that can enhance the professionalism of each component.The elaborate style does not lead to innovations in the production system, but it elevates the quality and reveals the ambitions of a new generation of authors interested in overcome the limits of fascist culture. The criticism of the time bubble these films as flimsy and superficial (specially coining the expression "elaborate style"), afterwards, since the 1960s, this judgment reductive has been extensively revised and corrected by the critics.
The cinema in the Republic of Salò
Cinema of the Republic of Salò is poorly regarded by historiography. This "non-story", begins the day after the Armistice when Luigi Freddi establishes a new Fascist Cinematography Centre in Venice in order to resume production. Ferdinand Mezzasoma, appointed Minister of popular culture, try to create a small Venetian Cinecittà with directors, the workers and actors who have answered the call to move to the North. But in the cinema of the social Republic is immediately sentenced to fight poor means granted by the authorities, now devoid of interest to one that Mussolini himself had defined the strongest weapon. Giorgio Venturini, General Manager of the show (although lacking any experience in cinema), describes realistically the situation in which it operates. The attempt to establish a solid group of actors is disastrous: Osvaldo Valenti, Luisa Ferida and Doris Duranti, are only names of prestige to have pledged allegiance to the new regime, to join the Cinevillaggio, while the other actors (including Luigi Tosi, Andreina Carli, Mino Doro, Nada Fiorelli, Maurice of Still and Elena Zareschi) are the names of the second floor, which is not enough to arouse the interest of the public. Among the Directors participating are Piero Ballerini, Francesco De Robertis, Fernando Cerchio, Ferruccio Cerio, Giorgio Ferroni, Mario Baffico, Max C; among the writers Corrado Pavolini, Alessandro De Stefani. The Ministry's resources are used mainly to bring back to life the Newsreel light. The 55 services from mid-1943 to the end of the war dealing with chronicles, sporting events, curiosities from abroad. The war often remains in the background, and one number one talks of the partisans. Feature films, forty in total (many of which are lost) carefully avoid propaganda. Among the most significant surviving titles there is the simple life (1946) by Francesco De Robertis, a Popular sentimental story set in Venice. The war is also the end of this fragile Cinevillaggio. At the end of hostilities the disagreements will be reassembled in the name of national reconstruction, partly in the vain hope of keeping even in times of peace a part of production in Venice. In the last years of the conflict, the enormous tragedies and destruction knows Italy. One of the most advanced production systems in Europe dissolved and the production is practically stationary. In this bleak scenario manifests a desire for rebirth, which in 1944 leads to the founding of the Fascist era, direct heir FNFIS ANICA, which brings together the interests of producers, distributors and exhibitors. An article in the new world, American Italian rotogravure, summarizes this desire for Resurrection: aftermath of 25 April, the parties formed a coalition Government on the basis of Catholic, Liberal, Socialist and Communist. With the advent of the Republic, within a few years, the production has stabilized; in 1945 produced 28 movies, rising to 62 the following year and to 104 in the early 1950s. At the end of the decade it will come to 167. Growth and facilitated by a Government assistance policy aimed at ensuring the stability of the industrial structure, in contrast to the Hollywood Studios, PCB, and American diplomacy, which They point instead to prevent the resumption of production. During the decade the national cinematography will impose on American films, which were shot down in droves on the market at the end of the war. In this field of conflict develops neorealism, a cultural and artistic season which covers all forms of art, but that is in the movie his most accomplished. Neorealism derives from free encounter of some individuality within a common historical climate, represented by the trauma of war and its liberation struggle. For these reasons the Neorealist cinema cannot be considered neither a current nor a movement, as a prominent filmmakers like. Roberto Rossellini, Vittorio De Sica, Luchino Visconti, Giuseppe De Santis, will always retain an autonomous personality and original. The common traits of neo-realism, inseparable from the historical context, can be identified rather in the ethical sense of brotherhood born from fascism in the centrality of public and private events in the relationship between characters and public history, that push to the preferential use of non-professional actors and real environments. It evolves into a realist style film that becomes the symbol of redemption of the Italian people, that poor but vital that cinema of the Fascist era had removed.
The turning point occurs with Roma Città Aperta (1945) by Roberto Rossellini, evocation fascist resistance in Rome during the last months of the war in which the different souls of the Roman resistance (Communist, liberal and Catholic) cooperate in mutual respect. What is most interesting to the Director are the roads, churches, roofs, housing, those habitats that man is called to defend. The film gets great international success and consecrates Rossellini in spokesperson of neorealism. The ecumenical vision comes back in the next, Paisà (1946), the war on the allies ' advance fresco from Sicily to the Po Valley, which compared to the previous sacrifices individual psychology at necessity of historic route and geography. In some ways mirrored Paisà is Germany year Zero (1947) filmed in the rubble of a Berlin destroyed by bombing. Here the war trauma is placed in the Catholic vision of man's struggle against adversity in history, that in the tragic finale seems to confirm the death of solidarity. Francesco Giullare di Dio (1950), renews the thematic research of the Director representing the popular religion as the answer to the meaning of life. In the following Stromboli (1950), Europa ' 51 (1952) and journey to Italy (1954), marked by collaboration with Ingrid Bergman, the Director asked about the relationship between the individual and society, about loneliness, the Director asked about the relationship between the individual and society, on the loneliness of existence and the silence of God, representing the visible data as correlatives of an inner search. With travel to Italy, Rossellini, Antonioni's existential even before cinema, disconnect the camera from the facts and forces the actors a recitation alienated coming to grasp the profound meaning of contemporary alienation. These films, initially greeted coolly by critics, will have great influence on the development of the European cinema of the following decades. On the other side, the parable of Vittorio De Sica is inseparable from that of his screenwriter Cesare Zavattini, who on more than one occasion represented the theoretical consciousness of the entire neo-realism. Together make in 1944 the children are watching us, which shows a strong focus on contemporary reality; attention recovery and extended in subsequent Sciuscià (1946), which will meet in a short time a great international success. Unlike Rossellini, De Sica loads the film of emotional intensity and seeks the involvement of the spectator by recounting the difficult survival of two little boys inevitably defeated. With Bicycle Thieves (1949) the individual drama, set in a wider social problem, you upload a pathos ably managed by the Director, capable of exerting the greatest degree the interpretations of non-professional actors. Miracle in Milan (1951) enters the territory of the story in the form of apologue fantastic and focus of its themes on the need for solidarity (bringing out a latent tendency in the poetics Zavattini. This claim to the power of imagination over reality will be met with great skepticism from critics and no longer finds below. The idea of putting Zavattini-like scene a meticulous description of daily life reaches its highest climate with film Umberto D. (1953), in many ways one of the quotes around the neo-realism. The story of an individual any grappling with the drama of life proceeds by accumulation of details that the Director brings to the height of expressive power. Among the directors of this period, Luchino Visconti is the most complex, in part due to forms of neo-realism. His breakthrough paves the way to the discovery of reality with Obsession (1943), film showing the literary ancestry of his cinema already, interest in the melodrama and the rural setting. Explaining the reasons for the American noir realism modules (especially French) this tragic psychological drama is anomalous in the context of fascist cinema and will be a point of reference for many subsequent filmmakers. After participation in the collective film Days of glory (1945) and an important theatrical activity, Visconti achieves a quotes of his filmography with the Earth trembles (1949) starring actors protagonists and spoke in dialect, the film is the sum of all artistic and cultural influences. The unique shape of aristocratic intellectual and Communist. The milanese filmmaker looks at the story of a fishing community by reading explicitly Marxist class struggle. From an aesthetic point of view, the complex figurative apparatus makes the drama every element of staging, with precise chromatic sequences constructed according to sound and music, plastic, reports. The work is a failure with audiences and Visconti fall back on less ambitious projects. The next movie Bellissima (1951), Visconti returns to contemporaneity with a detailed description of the film world and fascination about the common people, but does not renounce fictional narrative construction nor the complexity figurative. Interested in extending the boundaries of neorealism is Giuseppe De Santis. After a long apprenticeship critic for the magazine Cinema, Daly made his debut in 1946 with Caccia Tragica, which already shows his preference for narrative Chorale, the complexity of staging and epic. Over a dozen movies, De Santis will adopt neo-realist cinema popular contemporary forms, as well as Soviet Socialist realism to the show. The ambition is better shooting in bitter rice (1949), great international success, combining social ambition and popular culture. In no peace tra gli ulivi (1950) summarizes all the themes most dear to him: the centrality of the female character, the agricultural setting, the precise social description, Roma ore 11 (1952), leave the rural setting to describe the process of urbanisation and the contradictions of economic recovery.The few later films including:a husband for Anna (1953), days of love (1954), Uomini e lupi (1956), the road a year long (1958), will be welcomed coolly by critics, as if to signify the creative exhaustion of neorealism and the difficulty of representing a more complex society. Until the mid-1950s, many films will resume, in more or less conscious, Neorealist themes and settings. In Roma città libera, Marcello Pagliero contaminates neorealism with different trends of comical array. Alberto Lattuada, influenced by American noir, combines realism and need spectacular with the Bandit (1946); follow the ambitious historical fresco Il Mulino del Po (1949), the overcoat (1952), both literary source. The young American film modules with Pietro Germi looks to the witness (1945), lost youth (1947), In nome della legge (1949), the path of hope (1950) confirms the solidity of its Director. Even Mario Soldati puts his literary vocation in the service of realism with Le Miserie del Signor Travet (1946), before devoting himself especially to fiction. Luigi Zampa realizes its best known films in collaboration with Vitaliano Brancati, in its trilogy difficult years (1948), the art of getting along (1954). A certain social attention now reduced to mere background for sentimental comedies, will survive until the end of the Decade in a strand branded by critics as pink neorealism, whose film by Luciano Emmer Sunday in August (1950), The Spanish girl Spain (1952), 11th grade (1953). Renato Castellani also helps to revive the realist setting comedy with Sotto il sole di Roma (1948) and it's springin (1948), both filmed on location with actors non-professionals, and especially with the success of public and critics and Two cents worth of hope (1952). His style, able to combine popular Comedy and realistic reasons, will influence the directors of Italian comedy: the case of Luigi Comencini and Dino Risi in their bread, love and Fantasy in (1953), Poveri ma belli (1956). In this context we will film road, also a new band of actresses, Gina Lollobrigida, Silvana Pampanini, Marisa Allasio, Lucia Bosè, Silvana Mangano, Virna Lisi, Sophia Loren. In the middle of the decade the neorealist trend is exhausted, the causes are productive growth (with the simultaneous assertion of the coded genres), ideological cooling imposed by the Government in Exchange for support for the industry, the evolution of major filmmakers and the difficulty of representing a changing society. To mark the closure of this experience shall be provided by Roberto Rossellini films of the early 1950s, out of Vittorio De Sica's realist vein (with the failure of the film Stazione Termini and especially the debate stirred by the sense (1954) by Luchino Visconti, which overcomes the contemporary realism in the direction of historical fresco of the Risorgimento.
The art films of the fifties, sixties and seventies
Since the mid-1950s, Italian cinema is released from neorealism by addressing purely existential issues, filmed with styles and different points of view, often more introspective than descriptive. Thus we witness a new flowering of filmmakers that contribute fundamentally to the development of the seventh art. Michelangelo Antonioni is the first to establish itself, becoming in a short time an author of reference for modern cinema. The first work of Director, Cronaca di un amore (1950), is an indelible fracture with the world of neo-realism. After touring the Lady of the camellias (1953), Le amiche (1955), and Il Grido (1957), between 1960 and 1962, directs the famous film trilogy incommunicability, composed L'avventura, La notte and l'eclisse. In such films Antonioni faces directly the modern themes of alienation, incommunicability and existential malaise, where relationships are deliberately obscure in friendly and elusive. The Director is thus able to renew the film and drama to create a strong loss among fans and critics, who welcome these works in such a way often constant. Always in the sixties is consecrated to international attention with the following The Red Desert (1964), Golden Lion for best film at the Venice Film Festival and Blow Up (1966). During the 1970s get visibility beyond national borders Zabriskie Point (1970) Profession Reporter (1974), the latter played by American actor Jack Nicholson. The film (made famous by the virtuosic piano final sequence of seven minutes), employs multiple sets ranging from African deserts to Barcelona Gaudi's surreal, photographed in a glassy and sunny. Twenty years later, in 1995 will receive from the Academy the honorary Oscar for lifetime achievement. Another central figure in the development of cinema is the film-maker Federico Fellini, more than any other author has surrounded every aspect of the real and the surreal in a poetic dimension and Fables. Having debuted as a humorous writer in the magazine Marc'Aurelio debuted at the cinema with Alberto Lattuada film variety lights (1950). With films as nights of Cabiria (1957), La dolce vita (1960), in addition to the above i Vitelloni (1953), La Strada (1954). His cinema is enhanced from the successful partnership with the writers Arnold Lobel, Tulio Pinelli and with the composer Nino Rota. Some scenes of his films will become symbols of an entire epoch, such as the famous sequence of Anita Ekberg, La Dolce Vita, enters into the Trevi fountain and became an icon of international cinema. Upon its release the work triggers controversy they see take the field the Catholic magazine of the Osservatore Romano, which decries the film as immoral and impure, depicting a frivolous and decadent Rome, totally devoid of any moral certainty.During the sixties the artist romagnolo begins a phase of experimentation with dreamlike and monumental visionary 8.5 (1963) which will open a new phase of his long and brilliant career. The film is a fictional autobiography of the same Director, touching on topics like art, the persistence of memory and death. The 1970s opened with the Clowns (1970), where the author was able to showcase the delusional world of circus, follows a renewed tribute to the capital with the movie Rome (1972), documentary suspended betweenwheelies lyrics and merciless satire of manners, Amarcord (1974) describe their places of childhood with nostalgia and complicity contrasting mediocrity of fascism the spontaneous vitality of adolescence. Later works as Fellini's Casanova (1976), La città delle donne (1980), and the ship sails on (1983), Ginger and Fred (1985), Interview (1987), and La voce della luna (1990), consecrate Fellini as one of the greatest artists of the camera of the 20th century. In 1960 comes out in cinemas Rocco e i suoi fratelli, opera based on the short stories contained in The ponte della Ghisolfa, Giovanni Testori, confronts a southern tale of misery with the Northern industrial civilization, telling the influx of migration of populations from the South. In 1963 arrives on screens Il Gattopardo by Luchino Visconti, who follows in the same year the Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival. The film is a faithful illustration of step of Sicily of Bourbon to the Savoy. The final sequence of the dance between Burt Lancaster and Claudia Cardinale, despite which Nino Rota arranges a waltz by Giuseppe Verdi. His vast production continues with the damned (1969), death in Venice (1971), Ludwig (1973), family group in an interno (1974). With film, Vaghe stelle dell'orsareceives in 1965 the Golden Lion for best film at the Venice Film Festival. Pupil of Visconti, Franco Zeffirelli, author and filmmaker realizes the taming of the Shrew (1967) and Romeo and Juliet (1968), which gets the Oscar nomination as best Director; Roberto Rossellini reaches its success with La Traviata, released in 1982, after winning the Golden Lion at Venice in 1959 for Il Generale Della Rovere, will open a new phase of his career with testing of new films for cinema and television, from the humanistic and educational purposes. In the early 1960s Vittorio De Sica will lead to dramatic success the actress Sophia Loren in La ciociara (1960) and equally episodic comedy yesterday, today, tomorrow (1963), where Roman interpreter reads alongside Marcello Mastroianni. With the garden of the Finzi-Continis (1970), the artist will win in 1971 the bear of bear at the Berlin Film Festival and a year later the Oscar for best foreign film. To underline the peculiar career of Vittorio De Seta Palermo who in the 1950s manufactures various documentaries take place mainly in Sicily and Sardinia. These works describe with powerful expressiveness the Customs and habits of the proletariat and, at the same time, lay bare the harsh living conditions of Sicilian fishermen, sulphur miners nisseni and shepherds of Barbagia. In 1955, the Director receives the Palme d'Or at Cannes for best documentary in the film island of fire, later abandoned the documentary directing in 1961 the feature film Banditi a Orgosolo. The opera, stylistically, is an account of the life and habits of neorealist background a Sardinian shepherd who will be the Director's first prize at the Venice Film Festival. Prejudice to the documentary (and even before De Seta), the Director Domenico Paolella fruitful author of many film genres is awarded in 1951 the Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival for the documentary film the tragedy of Etna. Similarly, receives attention abroad the author and writer Folco Quilici for its documentary the last paradise (1956) and from the Apennines to the Andes (1960). In a contemporary time stating the Director Carlo Lizzani. After having contributed to the success of neo-realism, especially as a critic and screenwriter, has emerged as an author of a politically engaged cinema, addressing pressing moments in Italian history, from fascism to details later. After having made several documentaries Nel Mezzogiorno qualcosa and changed, (1950), in 1951 he directed his first feature film, Actung, bandits!, the story of an episode of partisan war followed the love that you pay episode of l'amore in città (1953). Her filmography continues with Chronicle of poor lovers (1954), account of Florence of the 1920s based on the novel by Vasco Pratolini, Il gobbo (1960) vivid portrait of a bandit in the outskirts of Rome, The process of Verona(1963), and La vita agra (1964). Always in the 1950s, Alessandro Blasetti deploys his innate desire to experiment with opening times (Zibaldone n. 1), modern times (Zibaldone n. 2), the reality of the episodic film, which will be used in a widespread manner by all the movies to come, both authored that farcical.Another protagonist of Auteur cinema is certainly Pier Paolo Pasolini. Iconoclastic figure of cinema and literature, in the variety of his works is often opposed to the mores and morals of the time, proving to posterity a major intellectuals of the 20th century. An attentive observer of the transformation of Italian society after World War II until the mid-1970s, has often aroused strong controversy for radicalism and liveliness of his thought; vivacity that has managed to bring out even in cinema and immediately found his feature debut, Accattone (1961). Far from the neo-realist, Pasolini experience with dry and functional camera movements, reveals the sacred matrix and its populist inspiration, describing an authentic humanity into the underworld and tragic. The same locations they are found in Mamma Roma (1962), with Anna Magnani, where the Director ennobles his suburban characters with references to Renaissance painting by Mantegna.The Gospel according to Matthew (1964), the artist depicts the life of Christ by renouncing the trappings of traditional iconography, with directorial style that alternates between handheld camera in your own images of fifteenth-century painting. In birds and birds (1966) its cinema turns on fantastic apologue describing the various transformations of the proletariat with a freedom of writing that mixes documentary with fiction, deftly found often corrosive and intelligent. Among its various and films include: Oedipus Rex (1967),Theorem (1968), Medea (1969) and the film adaptations of the trilogy of life, The Decameron (1971), the Canterbury Tales (Golden bear in Berlin in 1972) and il Fiore delle Mille e una notte (1974). Finally you highlight the chilling Salò and the 120 days of Sodom (1975), which was supposed to be part of the trilogy of death, together with demand-Teo-Blockbuster. Such films have proposed judicial and episodes of censorship.In the wake of the pasoliniano Township cinema fits the work of Gian Vittorio Baldi, who in the movie Luciano, a life burned (1962) Fire (1968) portrays a minor and peripheral Italy split, suspended between past and modernity; the whole movie with sociological and consistent accuracy expressive control. Author of an extensive documentary production, stands out thanks to the short film the crying of Spinsters, two years later, in 1960, won the Golden Lion for best short film in the film the House of widows. Always in the early sixties you register the artwork of Ansano Giannarelli, author of numerous film biographies for many decades, dedicated to distinguished mathematicians, scientists or authoritative exponents of the party. With his first film, 16 October 1943 (1960), based on the novel by James Dan, is nominated for an Oscar in the short films.Another important Director Valerio Zurlini: his films, violent summer (1959), girl with a suitcase (1961), family Chronicle in the desert of the Tartars (1976), alternate suggestive psychological analysis refined and complex literary festivals, with often significant Visual results. Very refined formal is cinema by Mauro Bolognini who despite suffering sometimes excesses of decadence and affectation, it has a psychological sensitivity of expression based on the excavation of the characters without forgetting the dialectic of conflict social. In this regard include the feature films the day balorda (1960), Il bell'antonio (1960), Metello (1970).
Ermanno Olmi made his debut with the film time stood still (1958), thrilling parable about the relationship between man and nature that makes you stand out its unique artistic skills. The notoriety will come three years later with the place (1961), a sweet-bitter portrait of Milan of the economic boom. After some jobs Ermanno Olmi received his success with the movie the tree of wooden clogs (1978), a tribute to the peasant world endangered, awarded at Cannes with the Palme d'Or. After a long illness returns to prominence in the 1980s with Ermanno Olmi surreal long live the Lady ! (1987) and the intended the legend of the Holy drinker(1988), awarded the Golden Lion at the Venice Film festival. In 2001 the Director realizes what many critics consider his best work: the profession of arms, dedicated to the myth of Giovanni dalle Bande Nere. The film was a big hit, will receive nine David di Donatello. A renewed interest by the criticism accompanies the release of subsequent feature films, Cantando dietro i paraventi (2003, with an unusual Bud Spencer), Centochiodi(2007), the village of cardboard (2011), it will return the lawns (2014). Marco Ferreri tries his hand at directing in the late 1950s by presenting a grotesque and provocative cinema, with traits and partially bunuellani accents. The most important titles in the early period of his career are El Pisito (1958) El cochecito (1960), the APE woman (1964). Reaches full artistic maturity with Dillinger is dead (1969), wild-eyed and very timely fable about the alienation of modern life. After the smitten Kafkaesque and surreal de Court (1971) gets the highest international popularity with surprising and discussed La grande bouffe (1973). Written by the Director with Rafael Azcona, the film is an allegory of the affluent society condemned to self-destruction and, at the same time, a clear essay on various connections between eros and thanatos, movies with chilling irony. The Director of Milan is back in 1991 with the direction of the feature film the House of smiles that will win the Golden bear at the Berlin Film Festival. Among his later works include diary of a maniac (1993) and silver nitrate, released in theaters in 1996. Always in the sixties it requires the attention of critics and audiences young Marco Bellocchio's work that through films openly at odds with society and bourgeois values anticipates the generational turmoil of 1968. His debut film fists in the Pocket (1965), because of its highly dramatic content, shakes the public paving the way for a prolific series of films which include: China is closeto(1967), in the name of the father (1972), Sbatti il mostro in prima pagina (1973), triumphal March and the documentary Crazy to untie, None or all (1975), directed by Silvano Agosti, an early example of militant cinema in defense of psychiatric method of Franco Basaglia, aimed at the social rehabilitation of the sick.Since the 1980s established an artistic collaboration with the psychiatrist Massimo Fagioli, until the revival in the 2000s with many films that have consolidated the prestigious authorship. Among these we mention: The hour of religion (2002), good morning, night (2003), The wedding Director (2006), Winning (2009), BeautifulSleeping beauty (2012), loosely based on the last days of Eluana Englaro and finally my flesh and blood(2015). In 2011 receives the Golden Lion in Venice, in 2015 the Leopard of honour at the Locarno Film Festival.Bernardo Bertolucci gets closer to cinema thanks to Pier Paolo Pasolini's Assistant on the set of Accattone. He soon leaves the world pasoliniano to pursue a personal idea of cinema, based on the anthropological study of the individual and his relationship to the social changes that history imposes. He debuted the feature film La commare Secca (1962), and arouses the attention before the revolution (1964). In the early 1970s realizes in rapid succession three pillars of his cinema: the conformist (1970), based on the novel of Moravia, the metaphysical La strategia del ragno (1970), the movie scandal Last tango in Paris (1972) with Marlon Brando and Maria Schneider. The film, due to his highly erotic content, is seized, acquitted, again seized and condemned to destruction for obscenity by the Supreme Court on 29 January 1976 (with loss of rights for five years by the same Director). On 9 February 1987 the film is reenabled by judgment "not obscene" because "changed the common decency."
In the 1976 Blockbuster Novecento (1976), lasting over five hours and where the first actors Robert De Niro and Gerard Depardieu. The film is a powerful fresco on the struggles of peasant class since the dawn of the twentieth century until World War II, where the author tries to upload pictures with lights and colors peasant painting, resalable condition in the Executive team of Miller, Vincent Van Gogh and Pelliza da Volpedo. The 1987 Bertolucci marks a further breakthrough: heads, the gigantic and impressive the last emperor, who will win nine Oscars, including those for best picture and Director, subsequent years continues on the road of the blockbuster and the market the sheltering sky (1990) and the little Buddha (1993), set in Nepal and the United States. The second half of the 1990s and the first years of the new Millennium saw a more intimist film Veer Bertolucci with Io ballo da sola (1996), the siege (1998), and The Dreamiers, the dreamers (2003). Forced in a wheelchair due to health problems after nearly ten years back behind the camera to direct you and me released in 2012. The brothers Paolo and Vittorio Taviani, movie fans, arrive at their first success with the film I sovversivi (1967), which it sees as first actor songwriter Lucio Dalla, followed under the sign of Scorpio (1969),Allosanfan (1974), Padre Padrone, based on the novel by Gavino Ledda, tells the struggle of a Sardinian shepherd against fierce patriarchal rules of your own universe. In the film Il Prato (1979), we encounter echoes realist, while La notte di San Lorenzo (1982), he says, with a style close to magical realism, the deliberate escape from a group of inhabitants of Tuscany, in the night where Germans and fascists appear bloody retaliation in the Cathedral. The scene of battle in the great wheat field (which took place between the fascists of Salò and the partisans), represents the culmination of a movie that gets big thumbs up and winning the Grand special jury prize at the Cannes Film Festival. In 2012 is currently winning the Golden bear at the Berlin Film Festival with the Film Caesar must die, actually performed by the inmates of the Roman prison Rebibbia.Gianni Amelio, made her film debut with Colpire al cuore (1982), a film about terrorism that does not go unnoticed, after I ragazzi di Via Panisperna (1988), film about the legendary group of physicists led by Enrico Fermi, reaches international acclaim with open doors (1990). In the movies that followed, Amelio develops social issues with painful involvement and artistic sensibility. With the Bambino thief (1992) won in 1992 the special jury prize at the Cannes Film Festival, the movie America (1994), describes the political situation in post-Communist Albania, being a country devastated like Rossellini's Germany year Zero , filming everything with their dry style and objectively. Four years with movies Like ridevanor (1998), a film difficult to understand for the public, in order to arrive at Le chiavi di casa (2004), on the problematic relationship between a father and son who is disabled, Amelio search a history of a wider with the star that there is (2006) takes place between Italy and China. Back to directing with regular continuity as the feature films the first man (2011),l'intrepido (2013), and the documentary Happy those who are different, released in March of 2014. Among the other authors of the Italian cinema remembers Liliana Cavani with the night Porter (1973), the skin, (1981), and Ripley's game (2002), Francesco Maselli gets a Grand Prize jury in Venice for the film love story (1986). The movie experience of the actor and theatre director Carmelo Bene, which arouses a sensation thanks to discussed the work our Lady of the Turks (1968), followed by films Salome (1972), A hamlet less (1973). In the early 1970s, engages with the cinematic medium the writer Alberto Bevilacqua, presenting feature films derived from his literary works. Among his most notable works include: La Califfa (1970), Questa specie d'amore (1972), an example of experimental cinema is that of Alberto Grifi, particularly in the movie Anna directed together with the actor Massimo Sarchielli and presented at major European festivals in 1975. the narrative and aesthetic mediations.
The great season of comedy (1958-1980)
In the late 1950s develops the kind of Italian comedy; a definition that refers to the title of a film by Pietro Germi: Divorzio all'italiana (1961), starring Marcello Mastroianni and Stefania Sandrelli. The term, rather than indicate a real genre, is for a particular film season, marked by a new way of understanding the building blocks of comedy. These elements are placed in contrast with the light comedy and disengaged of neorealism, rose in vogue throughout the 1950s. Bearing in mind the lesson of neo-realism, the new Italian comedy lay their attentions on reality produced by the economic boom. Therefore, alongside the comic situations and plots typical of traditional farce, we see emerging a stinging satire of manners, which highlights with sharp irony the contradictions of the industrial society. Since the late 1960s, Italy lives many phases that will change dramatically the mentality and the costume of the Italians. The economic times, the student unrest and the search for new African in the world of work and family, will become the perfect place within which project the characters of the play, ready to relive the scene changes in the society civilian. This movie season linked the names of the leading actors of the time: by Alberto Sordi to Vittorio Gassman, Ugo Tognazzi in Nino Manfredi, by Monica Vitti to Sophia Loren, Claudia Cardinale, Silvana Mangano, Giancarlo Giannini, Mariangela Mack and Ornella Muti. The Director Mario Monicelli, founder and one of the leading exponents of Italian comedy gets a big hit with I soliti ignoti (1958), written together with Fulvio Scarpelli and Agenore Incrocci. Cinematographic work caricatured version of film noir Rififi (1955), by Jules Dassin, combines its sequences of grotesque drama proletarian workshop ideas, filming with minutia of detail a Rome device and degraded, still foreign to the processes of the boom. The movie is a success much to be nominated for an Oscar for best foreign language film. Monicelli directed together with his colleague Alberto Mondadori his first film entitled the boys of Paul Street (1935). In 1959 the great war comes out in theaters with Alberto Sordi and Vittorio Gassman. The film, based on a story by Maupassant, contaminates historical tragedy with forms of comedy desecrating a topic the useless massacres of World War I hitherto taboo around the national cinema.After the companions (1963), wistful account of the birth of the labor movement in 1966 the filmmaker directs the picaresque and folksy l'armata Brancaleone, a masterpiece of fantasy and farcical adventures. Among his successful later films: popular fiction, my friends, Un borghese piccolo piccolo (1977). Mario Monicelli in 1991 receives the Golden Lion for lifetime achievement. The sixties are the period of economic boom and reflecting on cinema feels the effects of any changes affecting Italian society. One of the first artists to document these changes is certainly the milanese filmmaker Dino Risi, with overtaking. Always directed by Dino Rice include the episodic film monsters, a difficult life, which sees actor Alberto Sordi, a post-war Italy and the burgeoning artistic document on democracy, in perfect balance between farce and drama, among sociological ambitions and political disillusionment. Other films of note are: Straziami ma di baci saziami (1968), In nome del popolo Italian (1971) and women's perfume. The filmmaker Luigi Comencini was one of the most important authors with some pink comedies (Bread love and dreams ).
The great season of comedy (1958-1980)
The filmmaker Luigi Comencini was definitely one of the most important authors. After achieving popularity in the 1950s with some pink comedies among the famous bread, love and dreams, in 1960 Italian war film All the work to home, a film that reconstructs the days following the Armistice of Cassibile. Among his works: A cavallo della tigre (1961), La ragazza di Bube (1963), Lo scopone scientifico, the scripted Rai the adventures of Pinocchio, the Cat . Luigi Comencini in 1987 won the Golden Lion in Venice for his career. The Roman Director Ettore Scola, having dressed the role of scriptwriter, he made his directing debut in 1964 with the movie If we are talking about women. In 1974 creates the film c'eravamo tanto amati, spanning thirty years of Italian history through the story of three friends: the Attorney Peter Pan (Vittorio Gassman), portatino Antonio (Nino Manfredi and intellectual Nicola ( Stefano Satta Flores). Antonio Pietrangeli, who in his films he has worked on feminine psychology outlining precisely amari and fine portraits of women, his works include: Il sole negli occhi (1953), Adua e le compagne ( 1960), Parmigiana, Io la conoscevo bene (1965). The actor and Director Gian Luigi Polidoro manage to succeed with film the devil (1963), il Vigile (1960), Il medico della mutua (1968) by Director Luigi Zampa, as well as the various the plays of Vittorio De Sica as Il boom (1963), Ieri, oggi, domani (1963) and " marriage Italian-style (1964). Towards the 1970s film debut from Director Luciano Salce, author of many comedies, in addition to the comic movie cycle based on the adventures of Joe Faherty, include also the Federal, the desire Matta and duck à l'Orange. Do not forget the film by Franco Brusati, bread and chocolate about the problems of Italian immigration, always in this area, to remember Lina Wertmuller, who along with tried couple of actors Giancarlo Giannini and Mariangela Melato gave birth in the first half of the 1970s to successful films among which we highlight Mimì metallurgico ferito nell'onore (1972), Film d'amore e d'anarchia – this morning at 10 in via dei Fiori nella nota brothel .... (1973) and finally swept away by an unusual destiny in the blue sea of August (1974). More important is the film director Sergio Citti, who heads with distinct authorial grotesque and surreal comedy skills, along the lines of certain movies Pasoliano.The Roman Director reaches convincing results in more than one film, among which we mention: Ostia (1970),Carey (1977) and the Minestrone (1981). Among these deserve to be mentioned Nanni Loy which she received an Oscar nomination for the movie Le quattro giornate di Napoli (1962) – Sergio Corbucci, Steno, Salvatore Samperi and Marcello Fondato; and again: Pasquale Festa Campanile, Luigi Filippo D'Amico, Francesco Rosi and Tonino Cervi, Luigi Magni.
The place where the comedy is broad statement is certainly the theater where, between the thirties and forties, they develop many schools of variety shows they see top-notch comic actors as Carlo Dapporto, Govigama, Ettore Petrolini, Erminio Macario, Nino Taranto, Renato Rascel, and Antonio De Curtis, Totò, creator of an authentic form of commedia dell'arte, toto, has ranged from theatre, cinema and television and advertising. His films are still very successful, some jokes have become incoming phrases in common parlance. Among his countless feature films include: the firemen of Viggiù (1949), Totò cerca casa (1949), Totò le Moko (1949), Totò a colori (1952), misery and nobility (1954) Signori si nasce (1960). Don't neglect the artistic association with the great stage actor Peppino De Filippo, which has spawned numerous films of sure grip on the public. It also mentions other films such as La banda degli onesti (1956), Totò, Peppino e. .. la dolce vita (1961), Toto Peppino e la malafemmina ... (1956), directed by Camillo Mastrocinque. Comic actors such as Roberto Benigni, Carlo Verdone, Massimo Troisi, Francesco Nuti and Maurizio Nichetti, have proposed a new way of doing comedy tv movie from passing with ease.
Political social Cinema
Francesco Rosi after being a screenwriter and Assistant Director Luchino Visconti, in 1958 he directed his first film the challenge, followed a year later the Magliar fori (1959). In 1962 it opens the film project – retracing, through a series of long flashbacks, the life of a Sicilian mobster Salvatore Giuliano. Rosi Rod Steiger directs talking hands over the city (1963), in which he denounces with courage collusion exists between the various organs of the State and building exploitation in Naples. The film won the Golden Lion at the Venice Film Festival. One of the points of arrival of the artistic career of Francesco Rosi is undoubtedly the Mattei affair(1972), a rigorous document in which the Director seeks to shed light on the mysterious death of Enrico Mattei, manager of the State-run Italian group Eni . The film won the Palme d'Or at the Cannes film festival and became a model for similar products over the next decades civil complaint movie from Costa cinema – Graves and later from the movie JFK – a case still open by Oliver Stone. Student movements, workers, at the end of the sessata affect many arts especially the cinema and politically engaged. In this context new directors continue and strengthen the work of the Neapolitan Director; among these the most active is the Roman author Elio Petri, which uses political discourse with a view to overcoming and completion of Neorealist cinema. In this regard, the filmmaker declares:
«Neorealism unless intended as a broad need for investigation and research, but as a real poetic tendency, we don't care anymore. We must get to grips with modern myths, with inconsistencies, with corruption, with examples of heroism, with gasps of morality: it is important to know and be able to represent all:»
To remember by Elio Petri, Il maestro di Vigevano (1963), to each his own (1967), based on a novel by Leonardo Sciascia, the working class goes to heaven (1971), investigation of a citizen above suspicion (1970).In 1976 Petri brings another novel of Sciascia, Todo Modo, which tells the grotesque decay of a ruling class, who had taken refuge in a Hotel-Hermitage, in order to practice spiritual exercises. The civil commitment comes to the movies with Damiano Damiani and il Giorno della Civetta (1967), confessions of a police captain of the Republic (1971), the investigation is closed: forget (1971), Because it kills a magistrate, Io ho paura(1977). Giuliano Moltaldo, who also remembered after some experiences as an actor, he staged films of historical and political character as Gott mit uns (1970), Sacco and Vanzetti (1971) and Giordano Bruno (1973), of utmost importance is the tough and realistic in prison awaiting trial (1971), Nanni Loy, starring an unusual Alberto Sordi. In 1969 Marlon Brando is the star of a new political film directed by Pontecorvo: Queimada,describing the oppression of colonialism and the uprising of the oppressed people in a South American country. Another Director associated with political cinema and social commitment is Florestano Vancini, which in its most successful operas has combined the strength of historical reconstruction with an account of emotional and subjective crisis. Among his best known works are: La lunga notte del ' 43 (1960), seasons of our love (1966), and il Delitto Matteotti (1973).
The animated films
The pioneer of the cartoon is Italian Francesco Guido, better known as Gibba. After the war, produced the first animated film from our film entitled the last Shoeshine (1946), which incorporates issues its next decade andfeature films neorealism Rompicollo and with Antonio Attanasi picchiatelli. In the 1970s, after many documentaries, animated the same Gibba will return to the feature film the tale of the jungle (1974), preceded by the erotic Il nano e la strega (1973). Interesting also the contributions of the painter and stage designer Emanuele Luzzati that after some fine short films, realized in 1976 one of the masterpieces of Italian animation; The magic flute, based on the work of Morzat. In 1949, the designer Nino Pagot presents Dynamite brothers at the Venice Film Festival, one of the first animated movies of the era, released in theaters in conjunction with La Rosa di Bagdad (1949), realized by animator Anton Gino David. In the early 1950s the cartoonist Romano Scarpa created the short film the little match girl (1953). With Bruno Bozzetto the cartoon Italian international reaches a size: his debut feature West and soda (1965), a caricature of the Western genre, receives praise from public and critics. A few years later comes his second opera from the Vip my brother Superman Title, released in 1968. After many satirical short films (focusing on the popular figure of Mr. Rossiback to feature films with what is considered his most ambitious work: Allegro ma non troppo (1977), inspired by the movie Disney's Fantasia, a film made with mixed media in which the animated episodes are shaped the music of many classical music. Another animator not to forget is the artist Pino Zac that after working with Mauro Bolognini dashboard animated short work trip, part of the film to episodes Capriccio all'italiana (1968).In 1971 with mixed The nonexistent Knight, based on the novel by Italo Calvino. In the 1990s, the Italian animation enters a new stage of production by studying torinese magic lantern that in 1966, directed by Enzo d'alo, realizes the Christmas fairytale La freccia Azzurra, based on a story by Gianni Rodari. The film was quite successful and paved the way, in the coming years to other feature films. In fact, in 1998, after two years of work, there comes La gabbianella e il gatto based on the novel story of a Seagull and the cat who taught her to fly by Luis Sepùlveda which attracts the favours of the public. The Director Enza D'alò departed from the studio magic lantern, will result in the following years, other films like Momo alla conquista del tempo,Opopomoz. The studio in Turin distributes its films Aida of the trees and Totò Sapore e la magica storia della pizza. In 2003 he released his first animated film in computer graphics entirely Italian production titledl'apetta Giulia e la Signora Vita, directed by Paolo Modugno. To emphasize the work the story of Leo, directed by Mario Cambi.
In 2010 comes the first Italian animated film in 3D technology, directed by Igino Straffi, entitled Winx Club 3D magical adventure, adapted from the series that has enjoyed much fame around the world.
Meanwhile back in theaters Enzo D ' Alò, presenting his Pinocchio. In 2012 gets credit with the public the filmGladiators of Rome, also shot in 3D technology, followed by the feature film Winx Club – the mystery of the abyss (2014).
Next to the Neorealist cinema authors and existential, of Italian comedy and social commentary film since the second world war, develops an Italian cinema more popular than if one part is snubbed and opposed by critics the other is greeted with enthusiasm by much of the public, national and international levels. After hitting its peak in the sixties and seventies of the twentieth century, the genre films goes into decline in the mid-1980s for two main reasons: on the one hand the serious crisis that affects all the other Italian cinema and the affirmation of commercial television, which in a few years without his usual public cinemas. This kind of cinema came to fade and disappear in the early 1990s. The film genres produced in Italy are multiple (varying depending on the decades) and many times have crossed each other.
Between the mid-1950s develops the kind of popular melodramas, called tearjerker. Compared to previous decades, sentimental melodramas filmed dramas after World War II are characterized by more realistic environments, inhabited by a small bourgeoisie at the dawn of the economic boom. The exiles plots are often built around young couple joined by love but separated by walks of life membership, with particular insistence on the suffering, harassment and the disclaimers that the characters are forced to suffer. The melodramas are underappreciated by critics, who consider them as soap operas, but the success was immediate. The principal Director of the genus is Raffaello Matarazzo active since the time of fascism and prolific author of a series of films starring Amedeo Nazzari and Yvonne Sanson, with movies, Chains (1949),Torment (1950), I figli di nessuno (1951). Of Matarazzo and remember well: let him who is without sin (1952),Back! (1953), Vortex (1953), Giuseppe Verdi (1953), the white Angel (1955), La nave delle donne maledette(1953). Other directors who specialize in the genre are Guido Brignone, Duilio Coletti, Luigi Capuano, Gennaro Righelli, Carlo Campogalliani and Carmine Gallone, Riccardo Freda, Sergio Corbucci and Vittorio Cottafavi.Over the decades the melodrama tries to catch up to the tastes of the public. The films were minor stories as an argument with parents seconded or about to part ways, destined to die for an accident or illness. Other film genre and tell stories of couples in crisis who find love before separating from a tragedy. The founder of this kind is Misunderstood film by Luigi Comencini (1966). The popularity of the film kicks off a series of more or less explicit imitation throughout the 1970s. Among the most important titles include: the Anonymous Venetian (1970) by Enrico Maria Salerno, Heart (1973) by Romano Scavolini, the last snows of spring (1973),White horses of summer (1975) by Raimondo Del Balzo, the balloon vendor (1973) by Mario Gariazzo and Pink leaves tree (1974) by Armando Nannuzzi. In this kind of drama strand Neapolitan goes performed by a true host of regional stars like Mario Merola, among the most famous titles, Digger (1980), Lacrime napulitane(1981), Inmate (1981), the children know ' pieces ' and core (1981), all films directed by Alfonso Brescia.
Peplum and swashbuckling
Peplum are films set in antiquity with mythological or biblical facts related topics. The name comes from a Greek word indicating a specific women's tunic, usually played by various costumes. Among the most successful titles include: Ulysses (1954) by Mario Camerini, the labours of Hercules (1958) by Pietro Francisci and Ercole al centro della Terra (1961) by Mario Bava. These films narrate the exploits of powerful mythological heroes like Hercules, Goliath, Hercules, Samson, or Ursus, battling to release adult people from monsters or evil rulers, or with the Mission of rescuing maidens in distress. Played by American actors with experience by bodybuilders as Gordon Scott, Steve Reeves, Brad Harris. The plots of these movies are built on thin plots, dialogue out of sync, the acting of the primitive special effects, greasy character Woody contributed to label these works as mere reworkings of wealthy American Blockbuster. Similar to the Peplum is the kind of "cloak and dagger" in which they fit historical film set in medieval or Renaissance. These films narrate deeds of men and women actually existed, or feature the characters from fiction adventure. The criticism of papier-mâché, shows these genres like immense bubble promoted to commercial purposes, deliberately devoid of any artistic ambitions.
One of the few Italian films attributable to the kind one can quote Carosello Napoletano (1953) by Ettore Giannini, played by singer Giacomo Rondinella and from first-time Director Sophia Loren. The film is a cinematic vision of the play, presented for the first time at the Teatro La Pergola in Florence on 14 April 1950, and later at the Teatro Quirino in Rome. In the late 1950s, spread with remarkable luck the sottofilone of so-called musical films, involving the recruitment and participation of many pop music singers, with the sole intent of turning artists into real star of big screen. These production (most often sentimental character comedies) see it as the most popular Italian singers as Adriano Celentano, Mina, Little Tony, Rita Pavone, Gianni Morandi, Caterina Caselli, Iva Zanicchi, Domenico Modugno and Claudio Villa, whom between a sequence and the other propose various hits of the moment. The operation is a success, cementing the reputation of many Italian voices, especially by Gianni Morandi and Rita Pavone, who most embodied the joy and lightheartedness of the world of adolescents. Among the most representative titles include: Juke Box kids (1959) and Shouters on trial (1960) by Lucio Fulci, In ginocchio da Te (1964), by Ettore Maria Fizzarotti andRita Mosquito (1966) directed by Lina Wertmuller.
Science fiction movies
Italian cinema has been able to express its own line of science fiction, although made much more Hollywood than craft. Among the first filmmakers to try their hand in the genre include Paolo Heusch, with death comes from outer space (1958) and Riccardo Freda with Caltiki, the immortal Monster (1959). Among the authors emerges above all the Director Antonio Margheriti trailblazers of a genre that stands out mainly in the context of space adventure, almost always under the pseudonym Anthony m. Dawson was author of numerous films with limited budgets. His first feature from Title Space Men (1960) is an early example of space opera of Italian cinema, followed by The men's off Planet (1961), Range One. Despite the level of special effects at low cost, works by Margheriti manage to collect some attention both in Italy and abroad by contributing to the expansion of the strand. Among the directors affected by Ubaldo Ragona, Carlo Ausino Margheriti artworks are and Pietro Francisci. The filmmaker Mario Bava directed the sci-fi horror Terrore nello spazio (1965).During the same period the science fiction cinema is to cross with that of social satire, offering in this area some original contributions. Examples of this type are the flying saucer Tinto Brass (1964), and the comedy thriller coup (1969), directed by Luciano Salce. Notable exception is Nirvana (1997) by Gabriele Salvatores, a film that is the most expensive production of Italian science-fiction and greater commercial success. The author Neapolitan back to test the genre in 2014 with the Sci-Fi drama – The invisible boy.
Sergio Leone considered the precursor of cinema westerns, after some experience as an Assistant Director in several American productions made his directorial debut in 1961 with the Colossus of Rhodes. Three years later he devoted himself to the western genre by tossing in theaters movie a fistful of dollars (1964), followed by for a few dollars more (1965) and the good, the bad and the ugly (1966). This is reinforced by directorial style perfectly assisted by the soundtracks of Ennio Morricone. Success for Sergio Leone continues with the Blockbuster as there was a time in the west (1968), your head down (1971). Other Director of Westerns and Sergio Corbucci with Django, where Lance as actor Franco Nero. Include other western movies: hell in Texas(1963) by Mario Caiano, into great silence (1969),Vamos a matar companeros (1970), the big gundown (1966),Face to face (1967), a pistol for Ringo (1965), The return of Ringo (1966) and Viva Muerte ... tua! (1972) by Duccio Tessari, Arizona Colt (1966) by Michele Lupo, Sugar Colt (1966) by Franco Giraldi and Tepepa (1968) by Giulio Petroni. The strand of spaghetti westerns are connected the comedies of comedy films, written and directed by Director Enzo Barboni (whose initials are always under the pseudonym E.B. Clucher) and starring actors Bud Spencer and Terence Hill, the two most important films of the duo, are They call me Trinity ...(1970) and the sequel continuavano a chiamarlo Trinità .... In addition, the 1973 film my name is nobody, directed by Tonino Valeri. The film, produced by Sergio Leone and starring Terence Hill and Henry Fonda, combines the epic works as there was a time in the West .
Film, yellow, Thriller, horror
Italian filmmakers who have ventured in these productions are often a source of inspiration for a whole host of international filmmakers including: Brian De Palma, Tim Burton and Quentin Tarantino. The two most important authors have been Mario Bava and Dario Argento. Director/cinematographer Burr passes to create quality horror film, revealing at the same time, a remarkable storyteller of pictures, cultured and refined. Hismask of the demon (1960), whose plot was inspired by The story of Nikolai Gogol's Viy evč Vasil that outlines the figure of the vampire in a unique and original, in open opposition to that of iconography traditional. Dario Argento in his films has been able to use the mounting and the soundtracks of the Goblin band. Movies likethe bird with the Crystal plumage (1970), deep red (1975), have imposed figures widely echoed by all the Italian and international thriller. Another pioneer of horror movies and Riccardo Freda, with movies vampires(1956), the horrible secret of dr. Hichcock (1962) and the spectre (1963). We should also mention the Director Lucio Fulci deeds Don't torture a duckling, Zombi 2, city of the living dead, ... and you will live in terror!, the afterlife, The House by the cemetery. Even Pupi Avati realizes the horror film as the home of the Windows that laugh, Zeder. In the Italian horror film scene there are other works such as: the last man on Earth by Ubaldo Ragona, the perfume of the Lady in black by Francesco Barilli, the strange vice of Mrs. Wardth by Sergio Martino, La casa sperduta nel parco di Ruggero Deodato, Autostop rosso sangue , Pasquale Festa CampanileLa corta notte delle bambole di vetro by Aldo Lado, who saw her die?, what have you done to Solange? by Massimo Dallamano. Even Lamberto Bava (son of Director Mario Bava), implements many horror films, including: the House with the scale in oxen, demons, demons 2, ... The nightmare returns, desperate. Even Federico Fellini made a horror film within a film to episodes Tre passi nel delirio has created the episode Toby Dammit.
During the 1970s horror film digresses repeatedly in the subgenus splatter and gore, leaving his own mark in the Italian film imagery. International interest in the genre as cannibalistic, started by Umberto Lenzi movie Il paese del sesso selvaggio. The idea to set adventure in exotic locations and solar/horror stories proves commercially successful above all, so as to develop in the following years a real trend. Examples include the mountain of the Cannibal God, by Sergio Martino and eaten alive, Cannibal Ferox and nightmare city of Umberto Lenzi, Emanuelle and the last cannibals and Anthropophagous, directed by Joe D'Amato ZombieHolocaust, by Marino Girolami, Cannibal Holocaust by Ruggero Deodato, the latter condemned for its many scenes of violence imparted actually about animals, condemned and seized several times is back again in circulation with special cuts of censorship. Another movie where they show even of cruelty and violence isMondo Cane (1961), directed by Gualtiero Jacopetti, Paolo Cavara and Franco Prosperi that has proved an international success. In the 1980s in Italy are produced dozens of films thriller/horror of low quality, the lack of means of production and directed approximated with a poor script and cast of non-professional actors, did not prevent such films have a host of admirers, becoming CULT films.
Italian police movies
Other kind of success is the so-called Italian detective stories are drawn by policemen or Commissioners by unorthodox methods, sometimes not so much different from those of their antagonists. These figures are often struggling with thugs, terrorists and criminal Organizer and act against the background of the main Italian cities like Rome, Milan, Naples, Turin. The protagonists of these films can be also ordinary citizens, often victims of criminal incidents that, in the face of the inefficiency and slowness of Justice Act alone, becoming a sort of Avengers in combating the crime. The film in question, loads of action, car chases and violent scenes, have clear references to facts about criminals. The widespread use of the detective story has generated into the public a strong emotional consensus, prompting many filmmakers to take the road of movies like that. On the contrary, the criticism tends, immediately to downsize the scale of the problem as well as the artistic quality of these products, denigrandone explicitly the contents often branded as split if not downright subversive. The spread of crime has changed from the previous explosion of the western genre, of which partly takes styles and content. To change just the landscape that veers sharply from rural to urban slums where the continuing struggle between good and evil is nothing but a modern revival of the typical duels in sauce western. This genre becomes, the natural heir of the Italian westerns, where atmosphere and typical situations, outlaws and Sheriffs are deftly plopped in the modern context. The criticism locates in the movie bandits in Milan, directed by Carlo Lizzani. The work is inspired by criminal enterprises of the gang Carmona in Lombardy. One of the main architects of fortune of Italian is undoubtedly Fernando Di Leo crime that on several occasions, with films such as Milano calibro 9 (1972), La mala ordina, the Boss. Another comedy strand which is implemented under around the Italian crime film are the movies they see as protagonist Commissioner Ganzon, played by Tomas Milian, Mr Rizzo said Piedone with Bud Spencer.
The spy genre makes its appearance in Italian cinema between the mid-sixties to the mid seventies, reaching its peak between 1965 and 1967 with the release of more than fifty films fanta – all spy easy and built in the wake of the worldwide success obtained from James Bond films (then played by Sean Connery). This series of films (always made quickly and at low cost), they propose to recreate situations and actions they see as protagonists secret agents in the fight against terrorist organisations or sometimes against Scientists with detours behaviour, which often hold for subversive purposes ordnance or apocalyptic weapons. The protagonist on duty are tasked to trace the figure of agent James Bond, 007 theme song they annexed the notorious or declined in other numbers like 008/009/etc.. . For choosing the female cast were often hired actresses to fame, who had previously worked in big-budget American spy films and success. Just like the spaghetti westerns and detective story, this genre has given birth a rite under parody popular comedian, strand, especially in the sixties as seen in the movie the lights coming from the Parfait, directed by Mario Bava. The making of the film involved a co-production Italy-Usa, featuring the comic couple Franco Fanchi and Ibu together with the actor Sunil Price. There are parodies having as protagonist agent James Tont starring Lando Buzzanca, and the funny caricature of Super agent Flit impersonated by comedian Raimondo Vianello.
The United States is already active war in cinema in the 1950s, knows some popularity in the late 1960s, with non-professional actors. The subject and the screenplay were inspired largely by scenes of war really happened, or in some cases simply desert or exotic places and imaginary setting such as Latin America, Asia or the Middle East. During the 1980s there was a dizzying production of military works, often with obvious intent to honor American films more expensive as Papillon (1973, Apcalypse Now(1979), Rambo (1982).Among the directors who have distinguished themselves in this genre are: Enzo g. Castellari, Umberto Lenzi, Joe D'Amato, Claudio Fragassso, Bruno Mattei, Dadan, Camillo Teti, Armando Crispino, em David and Antonio Margheriti, while recurring actors remember the actor Klaus Kinski. The most famous film of the genre is that damned armored train of Enzo. G. Castellari (1978).
Within the Italian erotic cinema a special case represents the activity of the Venetian film director Tinto Brass, assistant masters such as Roberto Rossellini and Joris Ivens pursue a career as a Director with the feature film at the end of the world (1963) followed by Chi lavora è perduto (1963). During the 1970s he directed several productions with eccentric Salon Kitty, me and Caligula. In the following years the production of Tinto Brass veers sex cinema, tossing from time to time a large number of actresses emerging. Among its most successful films were: Miranda, Caprice, Paprika,Così fan tutte. In the late 1970s the Italian market and flooded with films softcore as Seduction of Ferdinand Leo, Malizia (1973) by Salvatore Samperi, springboard of Istrian actress Laura Antonelli. In the 1970s the loosening of censorship, the degeneration of the taste and especially the pursuit of commercial success through investment claims allow the development, alongside the Italian sexy comedy comedy more authorial. Textures, scripts and dialogues, serve as a pretext to develop background films more or less erotic and pure disimpengno. In this kind of movie they tied in popularity actors like Lando Buzzanca, Lino Banfi, Heidi D, Renzo Malhotra, Pippo Franco, Alvaro Vitali, Enzo Cannavale, Nadia Cassini, Gloria Guida, Barbara Bouchet, Edwinge Fenech, Carmen Villani, Anna Maria Rizzoli and Lilli Carati. Within that category are numbered movies starring the mask of Pierino, the literary character Gian Brurrasca.Characters present at the time of the sexy comedy have become popular over time: Ennio Antonelli, Giorgio Ariani, Giacomo Rizzo, Salvatore Baccaro, Frank Lechner (aka Bombolo), Nino Third, Luigi Origen Sofrano (Jimmy the phenomenon).
Eighties film crisis
This is a physiological process, which invests in the same period other countries from Japan film as the great tradition, Great Britain, and France. Set the age of producers: Carlo Ponti and Dino De Laurentis, Godfrey Lambardo, Franco Cristaldi. The crisis hits the cinema, by virtue of the success of commercial television that deprives the movie of his audience. Therefore the halls are being monopolized by wealthy Hollywood films, taking the upper hand. Several rooms open and others to survive into their theatrical release x-rated movies.Many important figures of Italian cinema disappear: by Vittorio De Sica in Pietro Germi, Paolo Pasolini to Luchino Visconti, Roberto Rossellini, Elio Pietri and Valerio Zurlini. Some movies get facilitation of Law 1213 of 1965 which allocates public funds for production (creating the company Italnoleggio). The most sensational debut of this new phase is to Nanni Moretti, who in 1976 turns into super 8 feature film I am self sufficient, free comedy left after sixty-eight, on the film Roman and the bourgeoisie middle-class youth fashions. The film was a great success and does Moretti the greatest exponent of young cinema in contrast to the dominant cinema. The later films use a stronger narrative structure to stage uncertainties of characters unable to adapt to the society around them: this is the case of existential yellow Bianca (1984), and The dramatic Messa è finita (1985), the Decade of Moretti closes with more complex and popular film, Palombella Rossa, movies on the difficult transformation of the Italian left on the eve of PCI. Among the various members of the young cinema include, Paolo Pietrangeli with pigs have wings, Salvatore Piscicelli with immaculate and Concetta,the other jealousy, Peter Del Monte with Invitation au voyage (1982), Claudio Caligari with Swansea love story(1983).
The new comedy, represents emerging artists for the 1980s, the first to get out is Roberto Benigni withBerglinguer I love you. Afterwards, no Benign do you steer by Marco Ferreri in seeking asylum, by Federico Fellini in the voice of the Moon, 1990 by Blake Edwards in The Son of the Pink Panther, 1993, will become Director of their movies with Johnny Stecchino, the monster, the little devil and life is good. Maurizio Nichetti coming from theater and film animation updates the registry a comedy movie outline Ho fatto splash,Ratataplan, Ladri di saponette, Want Flying. On a more traditional side Carlo Verdone has a nice lot, Bianco Rosso e Verdone, schoolmates, cursed the day I met you, we lose sight of . The artist Massimo Troisi renews the Neapolitan comedy with Ricomincio da tre, sorry for the delay, Le vie del Signore sono finite. After starring in films of others, Francesco Nuti Debuts as a Director with Casablanca, Casablanca, Tutta colpa del paradiso,Caruso Pascoski di padre polacco , Willy Signori e vengo da lontano. Many comedians from television and from cabaret have great popularity of the Decade, replacing the character of the erotic comedy, as Renato Pozzetto, Enrico Montesano, Massimo Boldi, Christian De Sica, Diego Abatantuono. The directors of reference of these productions are Castellano e Pipolo, Carlo Vanzina, it will launch several strands of successfulHolidays in Nataland, Via Montenapoleone, Sapore di mare, Nothing underneath. A figure unprecedented in Italian cinema, the filmmaker, who personally oversees the formal procedures of a film from writing to photography, from directing to editing, often produces video with small capitals. The emergence of this figure, increased access to intellectual and artistic professions. The Group of directors includes Massimo Mazzucco, the video artist Paolo Rosa, The nuclear Observatory of Mr. Nanof, 1985, Giancarlo money with thin Wrists, 1985, The serene air of the West. Gabriele Salvatores is active in Milan that brings her theatrical experience in summer night's dream, Kamikazen, last night in Milan .
In this context goes to the Cinema with documentary photographer Daniele Segre, militant social argument already often made for RAI and two feature films, rock head, Manila Paloma Blanca. The Festival of Bellaria collects an independent production in growth thanks to video technology while in Bassano del Grappa Ermanno Olmi organizes school Ipotesi Cinema, frequented by Maurizio Zaccaro and Giacomo Campiotti.Even the Italian branch of the Gaumont has been active in support to newcomers, but the early failure prevents significant outcomes.
The new directors
Other directors make their debut on the sly, but are destined to leave lasting marks in the following years.Marco Tullio Giordana directs in 1979 Maledetti vi Amero, which together with the fall of the rebel Angels, explores the world of extreme left in the time of ebb. In the following years, back to the movies only occasionally dedicating themselves to social cinema with Appointment to Liverpool and with Pasolini, un delitto Italian. The other major debut of the Decade is to Gianni Amelio, who after years of short films and documentaries for Rai turns strike at the heart ofone of the rare film about terrorism, followed by I Ragazzi di Via Panisperna ( 1988). Marco Risi directed some comedy films played by Jerry Calà, then change genre with365 days Soldiers at dawn, Mery per sempre, Ragazzi fuori. Other filmmakers who deserve to be remembered are Francesca Comencini with piano and Carlo Mazzacurati with Italian night. Mention Franco Piavoli, who despite having never entered the world of professional film left eyewitness accounts of great importance.After having made several documentaries in the 1960s, he made his debut in feature film with the blue planet, an original meditation on the cycles of nature that bends the codes of documentary towards a poetic form, the talent of Director is confirmed by Nostos, return, unprecedented interpretation of the myth of Ulysses who becomes an exploration of the unknown, and Voices in time (1996), sound Visual fresco on seasons of nature and life. In addition to the various films of Gianni Amelio, it states the cinema of Sicilian Director Giuseppe Tornatore, with the film Il Camorrista (1986), Nuovo Cinema Paradiso. In 1995 he directed the Star Maker, winning the grand jury prize at the Venice Film Festival. After a series of films such as the pianist on the ocean,Malèna, The unknown, Baarià. Gabriele Salvatores in 1989 directs Marrakech Express, tour dates,Mediterranean, Puerto of Escondito. In the 1990s, the latest effort by Fellini La voce della luna (1990). Mario Martone in 1992 after debuting with the Black Forest, get to the general public with death of a Neapolitan mathematician, which won him the grand jury prize at the Venice Film Festival. In the 1990s a trend develops thematic film widely open civil of actuality, Neorealist true as i film Ultrà (1991), focusing on violence, football fans The Commons (1993) inspired by the Sicilian Mafia killings, all directed by Ricky Tognazzi. Do not forget also shaved heads a film by Claudio Fragasso, violent neo-Nazi and Skinhead environmental portrait, thel judge kid (1993), Alessandro Di Robilant and Cops, directed by actor and Director Giulio Base, Giovanni Falcone of Farey, film that traces the final days of Sicilian magistrates Giovanni Falcone and Paolo Borsellino, starring Michele Placido and Giancarlo Giannini. Develops the cinema by Pasquale Pozzessere, with the moviesouthbound, with shots that refer to the cinema of Michelangelo Antonioni and Pier Paolo Pasolini. Worth mentioning among the directors also Fulvio Ottaviano for the movie Grow artichokes at Mimongo, Alessandro D'alatri that debuted with the film American Red. After a long apprenticeship of television as a set designer, he debuted in the film director and painter Antonio Capuano. In the feature film Vitus and others (1991), the author films with contemptuous courage the harsh and difficult situation delinquent minors Neapolitans.Follow Pianese Nunzio, 14 anni a maggio, Polvere di Napoli e la guerra di Mario dealing with psychological finesse a love affair thwarted between a mother and son. After a long apprenticeship as Assistant Director Luigi Comencini, Maurizio Sciarra realizes his first feature film called, La stanza dello Scirocco, four years later in 2011 received the Golden Leopard at the Locarno Film Festival for the movie Alla rivoluzione sulla due cavalli. In addition, reaches the general public film by Giuseppe Piccioni, who with his fifth feature film entitled out of this world, receives in 1999 an Oscar nomination for best foreign language film. You mention the work of two experimental filmmakers Angela Ricci Lucchi and Yervant Gianikian, which over thirty year career, showed documentaries about the tragic events of the first world war. Virtually unknown in Italy, have met since the 1990s, esteem and appreciation in many European festivals, among their best known films are:Men years life, films focusing on the massacre of Armenians. In the first half of the 1990s receive acclaim Alessandro Benvenuti with Benvenuti in casa Gori, Massimo Troisi with Pensavo fosse amore invece era un calesse., Lina Wertmuller, with I hope and Carlo Verdone Che me la cavo with cursed the day I met you andhoneymoon. It states the cinema by Daniele Luchetti, constantly torn between the classic comedy and a mature attention to civic engagement. Among his most important works include: the yes man, the school, the little masters, my brother and an only child. Towards the 1990s criticism and the grotesque masses of Sicilian directors Ciprì and Maresco exploit the television experience of Cynical Tv in the movie Lo zio di Brooklyn and later Totò che visse due volte, us and the Duke – when Duke Ellington played in Palermo. In the late 1980s, the filmmaker behind the camera Debuts Francesca Archibugi with comedy Mignon è partita, starring Stefania Sandrelli. After the film toward evening, directs in 1993 the great pumpkin. In this work the Arquebuses tackles the difficult issue of Neuropsychiatry, inspired by an essay of the psychiatrist Marco Lombardo Radice and his experiences in the Via Sabelli in Rome. It also takes the field Director Carlo Mazzacurati that with the feature film the bull gets a Silver Lion at the Venice Film Festival. In the late 1980s faces a new band of actors and directors, Sergio Castellitto, Silvio Orlando, Sergio Rubini, Fabrizio Bentivoglio, Laura Morante, Anna Bonaiuto, Francesca Neri, Monica Bellucci, Alessandro Haber, Magherita Buy, Valeria Golino. In September 1994 comes out in theaters the film Il postino, directed by Michael Radford and starring Massimo Troisi. The movie, adapted from the novel Ardiente Paciencia (1996) by Chilean Antonio Skàrmeta, represents the artistic testament of actor campano that centers the goal to revive the tradition of comedy in Italy and abroad getting nominated for 5 Academy Award in 1996. Massimo Troisi died 12 days after the end of filming.
In addition to the success obtained by Nanni Moretti at the Cannes Film Festival for La Stanza del figlio, retrieves new creative lymph film by Marco Bellocchio. Permanently closed its discussed collaboration with the psychoanalyst beans, which produces two features: The hour of religious instruction and good morning, night dedicated to the abduction of Aldo Moro who without offer historical reconstructions loads the inventive movie expression, widely shown in the final sequences involving a fanciful deliverance Christian Democrat statesman. Come to full artistic maturity film by Pupi Avati, which since the 1970s has alternated with cinematic intelligence films close to comedy to real forays into the horror genre. Starting from the movieChristmas gift, Papà di Giovanna e Gli amici del Bar Margherita. To remember Mario Monicelli that 90-year-old directed his last feature film The desert roses. The same Michelangelo Antonioni, after 10 years of silence back in episodic film Eros. Great success for Cristina Comencini, the daughter of film director Luigi Comencini that debuted with the film La bestia nel cuore. The Turkish-Italian Director Ferzan Özpetek gets success directing films focused on the difficulties of torque, mourning and the homosexual condition all themes found in works such as the Turkish bath, the ignorant fairies, La finestra di fronte, Sacred Heart, Saturn in opposition. Also consent to the public some sentimental film teenage character, some of them shot by Roman Director Gabriele Muccino. Among his most important titles include: the last Kiss, remember me and the more mature the pursuit of Happyness, starring Will Smith.
Gian Piero Brunetta, one hundred years of cinemain Italian, Laterza, Rome-Bari, 1991
Fiorangelo Pucci, Valerio Angelini, 1896-1914. Materials for a cinematic history of origins, Studioforma Editore, Turin, 1981
Lorenzo Qadri, economic history – Italian film policy, 1945-1980, Editori Riuniti, Rome, 1980.
Gian Piero Brunetta, one hundred years of Italian cinema, Laterza, Roma-Bari, 1991
Gian Piero Brunetta (ED), the history of world cinema, Vol. III, Einaudi, Torino, 2002.
Gian Piero Brunetta, Guide to the history of Italian cinema. 1905-2003, Einaudi, Torino, 2003.
Roberto Campari, the ghost of beauty. Italiancinemaiconology, Marsilio, Venezia, 1
Fiorangelo Pucci, Valerio Angelini (ED) .1896 -1914. Materials for a history of early cinema, Studioforma Editore, Turin, 1981.
Lorenzo Qadri, economic and political History of Italian cinema. 1945-1980, Editori Riuniti, Rome, 1980
Ernesto g. Laura, the picture liar. Mass media and entertainment in the Republic of Salò (1943-1945), ANCCI, Rome, 1986
C. Carabba, of black cinema, Vallecchi, Florence 1974.
R. Chiti-e. Spear, Dictionary of Italian cinema: movies, Vol. 1: From 1930 to 1944, and Vol 2: from 1945 to 1992 Gremese, Roma, 1993.
R. Chiti-e. Spear-a. Orbicciani, r. Poppi, Dictionary of Italian cinema: actresses, Gremese, Roma, 1999.
I cookie necessari sono indispensabili per il corretto funzionamento del sito, per questo motivo non possono essere disattivati. Questi cookie sono utilizzati esclusivamente da questo sito e non includono cookie di terze parti. Ciò significa che tutte le informazioni salvate attraverso questi cookie verranno trasmesse solo a questo sito.
Jimdo-cart-v1 Cookie di memorizzazione locale di informazioni sul carrello, necessario per permettere le operazioni di acquisto su questo shop. Fornitore: Jimdo GmbH, Stresemannstrasse 375, 22761 Amburgo, Germania Nome del cookie/memorizzazione locale: Jimdo-cart-v1 Durata del cookie: la memorizzazione locale non ha scadenza. Informativa sui cookie: https://www.jimdo.com/info/cookies/policy/ Dichiarazione sulla privacy: https://www.jimdo.com/it/info/regolamento-sulla-privacy/
Cookie shd Questo cookie identifica i visitatori che ritornano su questo sito e mantiene lo stato dell'utente per le richieste che provengono da tutte le pagine. Fornitore: Jimdo GmbH, Stresemannstrasse 375, 22761 Amburgo, Germania. Nome del cookie: shd Durata del cookie: 1 anno Informativa sui cookie: https://www.jimdo.com/info/cookies/policy/ Dichiarazione sulla privacy: https://www.jimdo.com/it/info/regolamento-sulla-privacy/
Cookielaw Questo cookie mostra il cookie banner e memorizza le preferenze del visitatore in fatto di cookie. Fornitore: Jimdo GmbH, Stresemannstrasse 375, 22761 Amburgo, Germania Nome del cookie: cookielaw Durata del cookie: 1 anno Informativa sui cookie: https://www.jimdo.com/info/cookies/policy/ Dichiarazione sulla privacy: https://www.jimdo.com/it/info/regolamento-sulla-privacy/
PHPSESSIONID Necessario per la memorizzazione locale delle informazioni e per il corretto funzionamento di questo shop. Fornitore: Jimdo GmbH, Stresemannstrasse 375, 22761 Amburgo, Germania Nome del cookie/memorizzazione locale: PHPSESSIONID Durata del cookie: 1 sessione Informativa sui cookie: https://www.jimdo.com/info/cookies/policy/ Dichiarazione sulla privacy: https://www.jimdo.com/it/info/regolamento-sulla-privacy/
Stripe Questi cookie sono necessari per abilitare i pagamenti condotti attraverso Stripe su questo shop. Fornitore: Stripe Inc., 185 Berry Street, Suite 550, San Francisco, CA 94107, USA. Nomi e durata dei cookie: __stripe_sid (durata: 30 minuti), __stripe_mid (durata: 1 anno), Ckies_stripe (durata: 1 anno) Informativa sui cookie: https://stripe.com/cookies-policy/legal Dichiarazione sulla privacy: https://stripe.com/privacy
Postfinance Necessario all'attivazione dei pagamenti effettuati su questo shop e elaborati attraverso Postfinance. Fornitore: PostFinance AG, Kontaktcenter, Mingerstrasse 20, 3030 Berna, Svizzera. Nome del cookie: ckies_postfinance Durata del cookie: 1 anno Informativa sui cookie: https://www.postfinance.ch/it/dettaglio/protezione-dei-dati.html Dichiarazione sulla privacy: https://www.postfinance.ch/it/dettaglio/protezione-dei-dati.html
Cookie di controllo Jimdo Cookie per l'abilitazione di servizi/cookie selezionati da chi visita il sito e usati per memorizzare le preferenze sui cookie. Fornitore: Jimdo GmbH, Stresemannstrasse 375, 22761 Amburgo, Germania. Nomi dei cookie: ckies_*, ckies_postfinance, ckies_stripe, ckies_powr, ckies_google, ckies_cookielaw, ckies_ga, ckies_jimdo_analytics, ckies_fb_analytics, ckies_fr Durata dei cookie: 1 anno Informativa sui cookie: https://www.jimdo.com/info/cookies/policy/ Dichiarazione sulla privacy: https://www.jimdo.com/it/info/regolamento-sulla-privacy/
I cookie funzionali permettono il corretto funzionamento del sito e una sua personalizzazione fondata sulle esigenze e sulle informazioni già fornite dal visitatore (ad esempio il nome di registrazione o la lingua selezionata).
Cookie POWr.io Questi cookie registrano in forma anonima dati statistici sul comportamento dei visitatori su questo sito e sono indispensabili per il corretto funzionamento di alcuni widget presenti sullo stesso. Tali cookie sono usati solo per analisi interne effettuate da chi gestisce il sito, ad esempio per il conteggio dei visitatori, ecc. Fornitore: Powr.io, POWr HQ, 340 Pine Street, San Francisco, California 94104, USA Nomi e durata dei cookie: yahoy_unique_[unique id] (durata: sessione), POWR_PRODUCTION (durata: sessione), ahoy_visitor (durata: 2 anni), ahoy_visit (durata: 1 giorno), src 30 Days Security, _gid Persistent (durata: 1 giorno). Informativa sui cookie: https://www.powr.io/privacy Dichiarazione sulla privacy: https://www.powr.io/privacy
I cookie di prestazione raccolgono informazioni su come un sito viene usato. Ce ne serviamo per capire meglio come vengono utilizzate le pagine del sito e per migliorarne l'aspetto, i contenuti e il funzionamento.
Google Analytics Questi cookie raccolgono informazioni anonime per finalità di analisi, ad esempio per capire come i visitatori usano e interagiscono con questo sito. Fornitore: Google LLC, 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway, Mountain View, CA 94043, USA oppure, se sei residente nell'UE, Google Ireland Limited, Gordon House, Barrow Street, Dublino 4, Irlanda. Nomi e durata dei cookie: __utma (durata: 2 anni), __utmb (durata: 30 minuti), __utmc (durata: sessione), __utmz (durata: 6 mesi), __utmt_b (durata: 1 giorno), __utm[unique ID] (durata: 2 anni), __ga (durata: 2 anni), __gat (durata: 1 minuto), __gid (durata: 24 ore), __ga_disable_* (durata: 100 anni). Informativa sui cookie: https://policies.google.com/technologies/cookies Dichiarazione sulla privacy: https://policies.google.com/privacy
Statistiche di Jimdo La funzione statistiche di Jimdo consiste in una tecnologia di tracciamento, basata su Google Analytics, e sviluppata e fornita da Jimdo GmbH. Questi cookie raccolgono dati in forma anonima per finalità di analisi sul comportamento e sull'interazione dei visitatori con questo sito. Fornitore: Jimdo GmbH, Stresemannstrasse 375, 22761 Amburgo, Germania. Nomi e durata dei cookie: ckies_jimdo_analytics (durata: 2 anni), __utma (durata: 2 anni), __utmb (durata: 30 minuti), __utmc (durata: sessione), __utmz (durata: 6 mesi), __utmt_b (durata: 1 giorno),__utm[unique ID] (durata: 2 anni), __ga (durata: 2 anni), __gat (durata: 1 minuto), __gid (durata: 24 ore), __ga_disable_* (durata: 100 anni). Informativa sui cookie: https://www.jimdo.com/it/info/cookies/policy/ Dichiarazione sulla privacy: https://www.jimdo.com/it/info/regolamento-sulla-privacy/
Cookie Durata: 23/07/2040
I cookie marketing / di terza parte sono utilizzati da aziende esterne (pubblicitarie e non solo) per raccogliere informazioni sui siti che ha visitato e per creare degli annunci pubblicitari personalizzati da mostrarle.
Facebook Analytics Si tratta di una tecnologia di tracciamento che utilizza il "pixel Facebook" della piattaforma social Facebook. È usata per l'analisi del sito, per la creazione e il monitoraggio di annunci pubblicitari e per generare su Facebook pubblici personalizzati. Fornitore: Facebook Inc, 1 Hacker Way, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA, oppure, se sei residente nell'UE, Facebook Ireland Ltd, 4 Grand Canal Square, Grand Canal Harbour, Dublino 2, Irlanda. Nomi dei cookie: _fbp, fr Durata dei cookie: 90 giorni Informativa sui cookie: https://www.facebook.com/policies/cookies Dichiarazione sulla privacy: https://www.facebook.com/policy.php
I cookie aiutano a migliorare l'esperienza dell'utente e le funzioni del sito. Continuando la navigazione, accetti la nostra Informativa sui cookie.