Fascist propaganda film

 

During the early years of fascism, the Duce earlyto give importance to the cinema as a medium of mass communication by stating publicly that feel it the strongest weapon of the State . The first movie to be considered fascist propaganda, is The cry of the Eagle (1923) by Mario Fox, one of the first films to March on Rome. In the movie the Duce was enhanced by linking it to the figure of Garibaldi. As well as the shape of Mussolini was tied to that of the hero of two worlds, in the film was also associated with the figure of the Serpent (with obvious Biblical references) to that of Communist. It is therefore an extremely high level of symbolization, mechanism which became very common in films of Propaganda F ascista. In 1924, the year of the short crisis suffered by RSystem F ascista after the murder of Socialist Deputy Giacomo Matteotti, was established The Educational Film Union , known as the Istituto Luce,of which the various ministries they used for the production of newsreels and documentaries with educational and propaganda purposes. In 1934 was created the Undersecretariat of State forPrint and the Propaganda , later transformed in Ministry for the press and the Propaganda in 1935. Finally it was renamed Ministry of popular culture in 1937. The main function of the Ministero consisted in the publications control and censorship of documents considered dangerous for the regime, but also operated in the field film, by promoting the production of propaganda films. Other events for the development of Cinema F ascista were the inauguration, in 1932, of the  Venice's Cinema and the birth, in 1934, of General Directorate of cinematography,of which Luigi Freddi, was appointed General Manager. The tasks of Direction ranged from reviewing and changing your screenplays of the films, to the delivery of prizes to the directors who supported the fascist cause, until arriving to monitor the import of foreign films. In fact, a good number of American movies were censored because they could influence the Italian people in a negative way for the regime. The main objective of this activity was not censorship, to ban Italian films that don't support the fascist ideology, but rather to adjust them so that the victory was not contradicted or Italian people to turn against the Government. In this regard, the introduction of talkies in the early 30 's, he expanded the possibilities of the censorship that could fit into the process of dubbing of a movie, making changes to the dialogues. When a film was considered totally inappropriate, it was directly blocked the purchase to distributors. An important example is that de gashed(Scarface, 1932) by Howard Hawks , distribution was prohibited because: "all the criminals supporting the scaffolding of the terrifying subject, even though they lived in the American environment, were carefully and deliberately italiani». In 1935 the National film industries (E.N.I.C.), a film production and distribution company, noting the company's activities Anonima Stefano Pittalunga. In 1938 the ENIC expanded to adjust the number of foreign films that were imported in Italy. L' ENIC became the only channel through which it was possible to bring foreign films into the country and severely limited selection of American movies that could be sold to distribution companies. In 1937 were founded in Rome Studi of Cinecittà and the attached Centro Sperimentale di Cinematografia the most famous professional school of cinema in Italy still in operation. On the opening day of Cinecittà, on April 21, was chosen as the symbolic date because it is believed to be the day of Rome's founding, establishing a link with the greatness of Italian cinema. In the same year the seat of Light was moved to the neighborhood Quadraro and for the laying of the foundation stone was set up a giant theatrical apparatus depicting Mussolini behind a camera and the inscription: the Cinematography is the strongest weapon . With the birth of the Republic S social The taliana was born in Venice Cinevillaggio (also called Cineisola), a structure for film production that was an alternative to Cinecittà (abandoned by the fascists as a result of the conflict), founded in the autumn of 1943 at the instigation of the Ministry of popular culture of CSR, directed by Ferdinando Mezzasoma. In studies of the Cinevillaggio was made a final film due to the trend of propaganda: a true story, directed by Piero Ballerini and starring Osvaldo Valenti e Luisa Ferida (actors-symbol of fascist cinema, then shot by partisans because accused of collaborating with the fascists). In terms of aesthetics and propaganda cinema theme is manly, heroic, revolutionary (according to fascists) and celebrating the regime and its ideals. Of the 772 films produced in Italy from 1930 to 1943, can be classified as direct or indirect propaganda film about a hundred, with an absolute pre-eminence of propaganda on the indirect direct.

 

Among the main propaganda film we can mention:

 

Black shirt (1933) by Giovacchino Forzano, old guard (1934) by Alessandro Blasetti,

 

Condottieri (1937) by Luis Trenker and Luciano Serra pilota (1938) by Goffredo Alessandrini.

 

The main features depicted in movies by P ropaganda F ascista are:

 

Portray the positive changes that have occurred with fascism to celebrate the values of fascism . Celebrate the March on Rome and the rise of fascism Depict the size of Italy and devotion to the homeland. . Tell historical facts relating to the history of Italy, above all the most important Italian risorgimento narrating the biographies of the characters of the story, to exalt the greatness and superiority of the Italian people. Exalt the Roman Empire, highlighting the link between this and the fascist regime:

 

Enhancing the rural world

Enhance Italian colonialism for its civilizing mission

 

Enhance the military operations and military actions undertaken by various Italian armed forces and volunteers in the various wars fought from fascist Italy (Spanish civil war, war in Ethiopia, Italian occupation of Albania, world war Premiere)

 

Denigrate and ridicule opponents of the regime (United States, Great Britain, Soviet Union)

 

Real movie poster of fascist propaganda was Old Gflexibility by Alessandro Blasetti, 1934 's movies focused onthe March on RomeDespite the recurring characteristics of these films, during the Fascist period were undoubtedly produced films of value turned true classics of Italian cinema. The dictatorship of Mussolini was limited to external control of the behavior of people to crush any opposition to the Government, giving a little more space to develop their own ideas and personal opinions. Unlike Germany, in Italy, the Government was more tolerant towards intellectuals provided no victory was the people against the Government. This phenomenon has undoubtedly passed on productions of the time. The real propaganda was then in newsreels shown before screenings, allowing the film to have greater breath and dwell on different themes. Fascist propaganda films took up residence with two other film strands: the first was to disengaged of white telephones, whose name came from the presence of white telephones in some of these films, which lined the social well-being of characters, since at that time white phones were more expensive than those of black color, most popular priced (and most common). The films belonging to this genus were sweetened sentimental comedies, light and carefree, bourgeois setting, where the arguments were the threat of adultery or a family separation (things unthinkable for Italy at that time ). One of the iconic actresses clung to this genus was Assia Noris. Another film genre that was traveling in parallel with that was the most accurate and sophisticated propaganda of elaborate style, characterized by more complex formal and textures and rich in artistic, theatrical and quotes literature (hence the term) and that special attention and care to scenic and perfection of framing and camera movements.One of the greatest exponents of this movement was film director and writer Mario Soldati, consecrated to the success with the movie Piccolo mondo antico (1941), the most representative of this current cinematic film, withstarring Massimo Serato and Alida Valli. Many directors were given the opportunity to start experimenting during the Fascist period. First of all the future master of realism with the fascist war trilogy of Roberto Rossellini, including his first three films:

 

The white ship (1941)

 

A pilot returns (1942)

 

The man of the cross (1943)

 

 

In these first three films were already present elements of neorealism.

 

The conquest of the aria (1939)

 

The men of the Legion (1940)

 

M.A.S. (1942)

 

Special correspondents (1943)

 

Marcello Albani

 

Redemption (1943)

 

The last dream (1944)

 

Domenico M. Gabriel

 

Struggles in the shadows (1938)

 

Black Crossing (1939)

 

Cesare Meano

 

Borders (1934)

 

Enrico Guazzoni

 

The two sergeants (1936)

 

Antonio Meucci (1940)

 

Sun (1929)

 

Mother Earth(1931)

 

1860 (1934)

 

Old guard (1934)

 

Aldebaran (1935)

 

Ettore Fieramosca  (1938)

 

The Iron Crown (1941)

 

Four steps in the clouds (1943)

 

Mario Camerini

 

The big appeal (1936)

 

 

 

Corrado D'errico

 

 

The path of Heroes (1936)

 

Augusto Genina

 

Lo squadrone bianco (1936)

 

The siege of the Alcazar (1940)

 

Bengasi (1942)

  

 

Carlo Campogalliani

 

Stadium (1934)

 

Il cavaliere di Kruja (1940)

 

The train Crusader (1943)

 

 

Pier Luigi Faraldo

 

 

Sancta Maria (1941)

 

Carmine Gallone

 

The last days of Pompei (1926)

 

Scipione Africanus (1937)

 

Christopher Columbus (1937)

 

Giuseppe Verdi (1938)

 

Odessa in flames (1942)

 

Harlem (1943)

 

Francesco De Robertis

 

Men on the bottom (1941)

 

Alfa Tau! (1942)

 

Men and heaven (1943)

 

Sailors without stars (1943)

 

Live again (1944)

 

 

Piero Costa

 

Aeroporto (1944)

 

Giovacchino Forzano

 

Camicia nera (1933)

 

Villafranca (1934)

 

Campo di maggio (1935)

 

Tredici uomini e un cannone (1936)

 

Racconti d'autunno, d'inverno e di primavera (1937)

 

 

Goffredo Alessandrini

 

Cavalleria (1936)

 

Luciano Serra pilota (1938)

 

Abuna Messias (1939)

 

Noi vivi (1942)

 

Addio Kira! (1942)

 

Giarabub (1942)

 

Luis Trenker

 

Condottieri (1937)

 

 Mario Volpe

 

 

The cry of the Eagle (1923)

 

Domenico Gaido

 

Martyrs of Italy (1927)

 

 

Silvio Laurenti Rosa

 

Martyrs of Italy (1927

 

 

Piero Ballerini

 

A true story

 

Walter Ruttmann

 

Steel (1933)

 

Esodo Pratelli

 

Gente Dell'Aria (1943)

 

 

Nunzio Malasomma

 

 

Things from another world (1939)

 

Mario Baffico

 

Three hundred of the seventh (1943)

 

Every day is Sunday (1944)

 

30 years of service (1944)

 

 

Aldo Vergano

 

Pietro Micca (1938)

 

Those of the mountain (1942)

 

Marco Elter

 

The shoes in the Sun (1935)

 

  

Oreste Biancoli

 

 The small alpine (1940)

 

Gennaro Righelli

 

 The armed azzura (1932)

 

The Knight of St. Mark (1939)

 

Horizon of blood (1943)

 

 

Edgar Neville

 

Carmen fra i rossi (1939)

 

Guido Brignone

 

Red Passport (1935)

 

Under the Southern Cross (1938)

 

Flavio Calzavara

Little castaways (1939)

 

 

 

Bibliography

 

Guido Aristarco fascist cinema: the before and after, Edizioni Dedalo, 1996

 

Vito Zagarrio, Cinema and fascism, Marsilio, 2004 Sergio Neighbors, stars of the duce, Hobby & Work Publishing, 2008

 

Vito Zagarrio, record: art, culture, cinema of fascism through a magazine, history and literature, 2007

 

Zezooo, the most powerful weapon. Film industry and was during fascism, Franco Angeli, 2012