Giovannino Guareschi

 1 May 1908 – Cervia Fontanelle di Roccabianca, 22 July 1968

 

 

Giovannino Guareschi was born in Fontanelle, Oliviero Joseph hamlet of Roccabianca, 1° maggio, 1908 into a middle-class family. His father Primo Augusto Guareschi was merchant, while his mother Lina Maghenzani, was an elementary school teacher in the country. After high school, he enrolled in the University of Parma.

 

He managed to get into boarding school "Maria Luigia" in Parma the ancient College of nobles, which offered food and lodging to students in financial difficulties, which were employed as tutors and assistants of the boarders. Here he met in 1922, Cesare Zavattini. The match was decisive for the development of his technique and his art. In 1925 the activity of father failed and could not continue his studies. Guareschi After trying a few odd jobs he entered the Gazzetta di Parma, as a proofreader, called from Zavattini, managing editor of the newspaper. In 1931 he began as a chronicler with the newspaper il Corriere Emiliano, with a fixed contract. At the end of the year he lived from sol, Borgo del Gesso. He had twenty-three. In a short time became a reporter, then Chief-Reporter. In 1934 he left for military service in Potenza, where he attended the course cadets. Finished the course, in 1936 he was transferred to Modena, where in may he was promoted to second lieutenant. Finished his military service, Guareschi moved to Milan, going to live with girlfriend Ennia Pallini in a studio apartment in via Gustavo Modena. In 1938 the couple moved a larger apartment in via Ciro Menotti.In 1936 Giovanni Guareschi gets a job at a newspaper, the fortnightly "Bertoldo" satire magazine published by Rizzoli and directed by Cesare Zavattini. The first issue was released on 14 July 1936, a day dedicated to Saint Camillus de Lillis, it was a stinging magazine against the regime and directed by medium-high social strata, in competition with the wildly popular biweekly "Marc'Aurelio". During World War II, Giovanni Guareschi under the effects of a hangover, because of the desperation of the news (later proved false) of the death of his brother on the Russian front, insulted and railed at length against Benito Mussolini and was arrested because of a denunciation made by a committed fascist who wont let go for weapons. As a result, conferred on them the mitigating, in 1943 was sentenced to the call in the army took leave as an artillery officer. When he signed the Armistice with the Allied troops he was in barracks in Alexandria. Declined as many others to disown the authority of the King and was arrested, imprisoned in the Citadel of Alessandria and then sent to German POW camps in Częstochowa in Wietzendorf and Sandbostel for two years, together with other Italian soldiers, where composed the Christmas fairy, musical tale of a dream of freedom in his birth as a prisoner. Later described the period of imprisonment in Diario Clandestino. The deep Catholic faith, devotion to the monarchy and the fervent communism made Guareschi one of the sharpest critics of the Italian Communist Party. Famous for his cartoons entitled "blind obedience, ready, absolute", where he mocked the Communist militants that he called man (the third nostril had a twofold purpose, was used to drain the brain matter and to let directly to the guidelines of the party), which took the letter directives coming from above, despite the clear printing errors, then correct with the phrase, "Countermand fellows." For the famous first companion sticker with three nostrils, Togliatti he insulted with a nickname of "three times idiot multiplied by three," calling it the Dork in the world during a rally in La Spezia. In response, Guareschi wrote about Candide to interpret him as a "recognition" . In 1948 during the general election he worked much for it to be defeated popular democratic front, in a story called "Forehead Pecorale Democrat." Many slogans like "In secret voting booth God sees you, Stanlin, No" and the skeleton of a soldier behind the latticework Russians saying "100,000 Italian prisoners are not returned from Russia, mom, votagli against you too." Came out of her mind active. Guareschi also criticized the Christian Democrats which in its view did not follow the principles which had inspired. At the end of the war, Guareschi returned to Italy and founded with Giovanni Mosca and Mondaini, an independent magazine with royalist sympathies Lie, "Candide" weekly Saturday. Associate Editor of the magazine with John Moscow until 1950, Guareschi remains sole Director until 1957 year when he succeeded Alessandro Minardi. In the magazine, along with other popular Italian satire feathers, he healed many headings including one signed by "The Forbiciastro", which spigolava in Italian news. Guareschi irreducible monarch hid it. In the referendum of 2 June 1946 openly supported the monarchy and denounced the fraud that he had overturned the outcome of the popular vote. In 1950 he was sentenced with probation to eight months in jail on trial for insulting the head of State, Luigi Einaudi. Some cartoons on Candide had brought to the fore that Einaudi, on wine labels of its production (Nebbiolo), allowed it to be brought out his public office as Senator, Guareschi was not the author of the cartoon material, the author was Darryl Manzoni, but was sentenced as editor in Chief of the magazine. In 1954, he was convicted of libel on complaint of Alcide De Gasperi. Guareschi had come into possession of two letters of politician trentino dating back to 1944. In one of them the future Prime Minister, who at the time was living in Rome, he would ask Anglo-American allies to bomb the outskirts of the city in order to demoralize German collaborators. According to Guareschi the letters were authentic. Before posting, had submitted a handwriting letters by relying on an authority on Dr. Umberto Focaccia. The process is claimed to have acted in good faith. Focaccia, died in the same Milan court, claimed in Court of carrying out a "long, careful and painstaking examination by comparison with many other writings definitely authentic of De Gasperi". In 1968 he was again the direction of Candide by Giorgio Pisano, but died before he could start again due to a heart attack. His funeral, held under the flag with the coat of arms of Savoy, were which was shunned by all authorities. Giovanni Guareschi was buried in the small cemetery of Roncole Verdi.

 

Works

 

Small world, Don Camillo, Milano, Rizzoli, 1948

 

Small world, Don Camillo, rebound, Rizzoli, 1952

 

Small world, Don Camillo and his flock, Milano, Rizzoli, 1953

 

Small world, Don Camillo in Moscow, Milan, Rizzoli, 1963

 

Small world, Don Camillo e i giovani d'oggi Milan, Rizzoli, 1969

 

People like that, small world, Milan, Rizzoli, 1980

 

Pale spumarino. Mondo piccolo, Milan, Rizzoli, 1981

 

The tenth stowaway. Piccolo mondo borghese, Milano, Rizzoli, 1982

 

We at the Boscaccio, Piccolo mondo borghese, Milano, Rizzoli, 1983

 

The year of Don Camillo, Milan, Rizzoli, 1986

 

The Breviary of Don Camillo, Milano, Rizzoli, 1994

 

Hi Don Camillo, Milano, Rizzoli, 1996

 

Don Camillo and Don Chichì, Don Camillo e i giovani d'oggi, Milano, Rizzoli, 1996

 

Don Camillo the Gospel simply, 12 short stories edited by Giovanni Guareschi commented by Giacomo Biffi, Giovanni Lugaresi and Giorgio Torelli, Alessandro Gnocchi, Mario Palmaro, Milan, again, 1999

 

Qua la mano Don Camillo, theology according to Peppone, 14 stories of Giovannino Guareschi commented by Michele Brambilla, Giovanni Lotto, Giovanni Lugaresi, Alessandro Maggiolini, Giorgio Torelli.

 

The discovery of Milan, Rizzoli, 1941

 

Il destino si chiama Clotilde, romance and adventure with an important digression which as personal in nature, fits admirably into each other and the most diverse and interesting routes, making it corroboratesMilan, Rizzoli, 1941.

 

Il marito in collegio. Novel ameno, Milano, Rizzoli, 1944

 

Favola di Natale, Milano, Edizioni Riunite, 1946

 

Provisional, post-war Album Italy, Milano, Rizzoli, 1947

 

The Zibaldone, assorted Stories old and new, Milan, Rizzoli .1948

 

Diario clandestino, 1943 – 1945, Milano, Rizzoli, 1949

 

Corrierino delle famiglie, Milan, Rizzoli, 1954

 

The hot summer of Pandey, Bologna, Il Borgo, 1967

 

Family life, Milan, Rizzoli, 1968

 

The Italy in gridiron, Milan, Bourgeois editions, 1968

 

Any Observations, Milan, Rizzoli

 

Return to basics, Milano, Rizzoli, 1989

 

Those who dream of new Geraniums?, Autobiography, Milano, Rizzoli, 1993

 

Life with GIO, family life & others explainthe, Milano, Rizzoli, 1995

 

The Persuaders, Milan, Ghisetti & Corvi, 2000

 

Black and white. Giovannino Guareschi in Parma, 1929 – 1938, Milano, Rizzoli, 2001

 

The daughter of Marshal, Fotofumetto of Candide, Milan, Rizzoli